South Sudan : Birth of A Nation


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JANUARY 08 , 2012           11.45 P.M.

It is not that every day a new country is born . It happens occasionally . It happens once in a life time . So when I read about the vivisection of Sudan , a country in Africa , I was pleasantly surprised .

In my 60 years of existence , I have seen birth of 28 major countries . I might be forgetting some tiny countries but 28 major countries took birth during my life time and I vividly remember those epoch – making moments . So when Sudan was split into two , I decided to chronicle these events .

Bangladesh :

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English: East Bengal Map

Map of Bangladesh

Map of Bangladesh

First major country , whose birth I remember , was Bangladesh . She came into being in 1971 after a bloody and gory battle with Pakistan . Formerly East Pakistan , the new country Bangladesh , became independent in 1971 .

Birth of Bangladesh is proof that religion can not be a binding factor for a country . In the case of Bangladesh , the common religion , Islam failed to unite two wings of Pakistan .

Bangladesh became a member of United Nation Organization in 1974 .

Vietnam :

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Map of Vietnam with Indo - China Nations

Vietnam’s journey as a nation is fascinating . From Imperial China to French colonizers she travelled through the centuries and the journey was an arduous one at times . Later on Vietnam accepted communism , she was divided into two ; North Vietnam and South Vietnam . North Vietnam was communist and South Vietnam was capitalist . Hanoi and Saigon were the capital cities of two Vietnams respectively . Both parts of Vietnams were united on July 02 , 1976 .

Vietnam is one nation . She was divided into two states . But nationalism prevailed and finally Vietnam was united again and again became one nation .

Germany :

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Map of East & West Germany

Map of Germany

History of Germany is very fascinating . Germany’s case , like Vietnam , is the classic case of a nation triumphing over a state . Basically a nation , Germany was divided into two states after 1945 . Communist East Germany was called German Democratic Republic with East Berlin as capital . Capitalist  West Germany was called Federal Republic of Germany with Bonn as capital .

After just 45 years of vivisection , German nationalism prevailed and Germany once again became one nation in 1990 . Berlin became the national capital and Berlin wall was demolished .

Case of Germany is like Vietnam . Both are one nation . Both were divided into two states . Political divisions like capitalism and communism were unable to divide them and they finally became one nation .

Union of Soviet Socialist Republic :

=================================

Map of U.S.S.R.

If Vietnam and Germany are the symbols of victory of nation over state , then USSR is the symbol of failure of state in front of nationalism . Vietnam and Germany were one nation divided in two states . Finally they became one nation . USSR was one state with 15 nations and was dissolved in 1991 after 69 years of artificial existence and 15 independent and sovereign nations came into being .

Russia , Ukrain , Belarus , Uzbekistan , Turkmenistan , Tajikistan , Azerbijan , Kazakhistan , Kirghizstan , Georgia , Armenia , Moldova , Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania were merged to form USSR [ Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ] . They became independent in 1991 .

It was most momentous time of my life . Mighty USSR just collapsed in front of my eyes and 15 new nations were born . It never seemed probable even a month before December 1991 that an invincible looking USSR will cease to exist .

All 15 nations became members of  U. N. O. in 1992 .

Yugoslavia ;

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Map of Yugoslavia

Former Parts of Yugoslavia

After fall of USSR , other communist nations were also became vulnerable . Yugoslavia , another classic case of one state and several nations , became unstable. Artificially created state of Yugoslavia disintegrated in 1991 after demise of Josip Broz Tito and collapse of Union of Soviet Socialist Republic .

Croatia , Serbia , Slovenia , Mecedonia , Montenegro and Bosnia & Herzegovina asserted their nationalistic aspirations and became independent and sovereign nations .

Off all these 6 nations ; Croatia , Slovenia and Bosnia & Herzegovina became members of U. N. O. in 1992 . Mecedonia became a member in 1993 , Serbia joined in 2000 and the 6th one Montenegro became member of U. N. O. in 2006 .

Czechoslovakia :

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Map of Czechoslovakia

Czech Republic & Slovakia

After USSR and Yugoslavia , another communist country , Czechoslovakia , collapsed soon . She was also one state and two nations . On January 01 , 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia became independent and they both joined U. N. O. in 1993 .

South Sudan :

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Sudan’s case is different . She is one nation but religion divides them . North Sudan is Islamic and finds solace in the comity of Arab nations . South Sudan is Christian and is not comfortable with Arab identity .

After 5 decades of guerrilla struggle and loss of 2 million lives , South Sudan came into existence on July 09 , 2011 . She became Africa’s 54th state with Juba as the capital of the new state .

Religion failed to unite Pakistan and Bangladesh . In Sudan’s case religion divided them . Fate of South Sudan is unknown and precarious . Majority of its people live on less than a dollar a day . Almost three-quarter of  adults cannot read or write . Only 1% has a bank account .

Sudan with Khartoum as its capital is Islamic and prefers Arab identity . While South Sudan with Juba as its capital is Christian and prefers western identity . South Sudan is the 54th African state and 193rd member of United Nations Organization .

India South Sudan Locator

Location of India & South Sudan

Sudan - South Sudan - Locator map

Location of Sudan & South Sudan

Map of Sudan

Map of North & South Sudan

English: Seal of the Government of Southern Sudan

Seal of Government of South Sudan

So South Sudan became the 54th African State . She became newest and 193rd country of the world . She became the 28th nation to become independent in my life time . As I stated earlier , countries don’t take birth everyday . Birth of a nation is a rare experience . I am lucky that I could witness birth of 28 nations in my life .

It is rare . It is unique . It is not going to happen again . Welcome 193rd nation of this earth !

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

 

Egypt : The Harbinger of Change in Arab World


EVENING…………………………………………….7.55 P.M.

I hate the word Current Affaires. What is happening in this world is not just current affaires. It is definitely something very serious. Whatever has happened is history . So whatever is happening today, is history-in-the-making. That is the reason, I have named this category : History-In-Making and not current affairs.

Gamal Abdel Nasser takes presidential oath for...

Image via Wikipedia - Nasser Taking oath for 3rd Presidential Term

I was curiously and very anxiously following the happenings in Egypt. I am a student of history and thus was familiar with the ancient history of Egypt. I was always fascinated by the Pyramids, the Sphinx. I have read about the pre-historic Egypt. I know about the Roman Egypt and the Ottoman Egypt. I had childhood memories of Egypt’s ruler Gamal Abdel Nasser, who overthrew the monarchy and stablished democracy. King Farouk was overthrown in a bloodless coup and Mohammad Naguib took as the first Prime Minister of Egypt. Nasser was the real architect of this change. Later on he deposed Mohammad Naguib and took as the second Prime Minister of the ancient nation. Along with Jawahar Lal Nehru and Yugoslavia’s Josip Broz Tito , he was instrumental in forming the Non-Alignment Movement. When he died in 1970, his funeral was attended by 5 million people. Such was his popularity and such was his stature and standing in the world arena.

President Gamal Abd ElNasser, the second presi...

Image via Wikipedia - Gamal Abdel Nasser

After Nasser , Anwar El Sadat became the ruler of Egypt. His tenure was marked for his historic visit to Israel and eventually Egypt’s recognition of the Jewish state. By a gentle stoke of his pen, he ended centuries old hostility and animosity. No student of world history will ever forget those momentous days of the President of Egypt’s state visit to Israel and the eventual recognition of the Jewish state by an Arab nation.

President Anwar Sadat of Egypt

Image via Wikipedia - Anwar El Sadat

Anwar El Sadat was disliked by Muslim Brotherhood people for this and he was fiercely opposed by the orthodox muslims. Sadat was ultimately gunned down by an orthodox muslim group, while  inspecting a military parade. Hosni Mubarak succeeded him and ruled for a close 30 years. I have no memory of pre-Nasser period but from the rule of Nasser to Sadat to Hosni Mubarak, I was a close follower.

Suddenly one day there was an innocuous news about Tunisia , a tiny state in Africa continent. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali , the despotic ruler of Tunisia, was forced to leave the country by unarmed protesting mobs.

”]Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, President of Tunisia ...

This incident triggered protests in Egypt on January 25, 2011 and suddenly my twitter timeline was flooded with the news of Egypt and her unarmed protesting masses at Tahrir Square. Despite best efforts of Mubarak government , protests refused to be petered out and finally after almost a fortnight and after several procrastinations , Hosni Mubarak resigned and a military council took over. Mubarak is set to be in coma and his whereabouts are not known.

“]President George W. Bush and Egyptian Presiden...

Image via Wikipedia - Hosni Mubarak {President of Egypt

It will always be remembered as a watershed movement. Trigger point of this massive campaign was initiated by Wael Ghonim, a google executive , whose anti-terror Facebook page helped spark the movement. Hosni Mubarak’s departure is creating ripples in the entire Arab world and protests are erupting in Iran, Yemen, Bahrain, Libya, Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Rulers are announcing sops and reforms suo-moto. Word’s first Facebook and Twitter revolution is about to create a far-reaching impact in the entire Middle East.

I wish and pray that Egypt should remain secular and democratic and should not fall in the hands of Muslim Brotherhood. She should not be allowed to become another Afghanistan and Talibanization of Egypt is not desired and it will not be good for the larger muslim interests.

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi


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