Jayalalithaa ; Gone Too Soon !!


2

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           DECEMBER 08, 2016           02.30 A.M.

रहने को सदा दहर में आता नहीं कोई
तुम जैसे गए ऐसे भी जाता नहीं कोई

डरता हूँ कहीं ख़ुश्क न हो जाये समंदर
राख अपनी कभी आप बहाता नहीं कोई

इक बार तो खुद मौत भी घबरा गयी होगी
यूँ मौत को सीने से लगाता नहीं कोई

माना कि उजालों ने तुम्हे दाग़ दिए थे
बे-रात ढले शम्अ बुझाता नहीं कोई

अहबाब ने ये कह के संवारी हैं चिताएँ
आराम कहीं और तो पाता नहीं कोई

साक़ी से गिला था तुम्हे मैख़ाने से शिकवा
अब ज़हर से भी प्यास बुझाता नहीं कोई

हर सुबह हिला देता था ज़ंजीर ज़माना
क्योँ आज दीवाने को जगाता नहीं कोई

अरथी तो उठा लेते हैं सब अश्क बहा के
नाज़-ए-दिल-ए-बेताब उठाता नहीं कोई

-कैफ़ी आज़मी

Above mentioned ghazal was written by Kaifi Azmi in memory of Guru Dutt. I am re-producing it in memory of Jayalalithaa.

I am not writing this blog about Jayalalithaa, the AMMA or Puratchi Thalaivi (revolutionary leader) because much has been written about her political journey and her feisty struggle after demise of her mentor MGR. There is nothing new for me to write.

I am writing about Jayalalithaa, the actor or Kalai Selvi ( artistic or work of art) of Tamil cinema.

As I watched the news of her death and her funeral procession, my thoughts went 48 years back. The year was 1968 and the place was Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. Fresh after my High School results, I went to Allahabad to pursue my academic career at the age of 15.

One day I saw the posters of a Hindi film Izzat and went to watch the movie in Pushparaj talkies. It had Dharmendra in leading role along with Jayalalithaa. Produced by A. K. Nadiadwala of Pushpa Pictures [ grandfather of now famous Sajid Nadiadwala ] and directed by T. Prakash Rao, Izzat has Lakshmikant Pyarelal as music director.

It was the movie in which Jayalalitha made her debut in Hindi films. She played a spunky Adivasi belle, Jhumki, in love with Dharmendra, who is far above her socially.

I knew Jayalalithaa’s name and reputation in Tamil film industry but was not a fan of her. When the film ended and I came out, I was a life-long fan. I became an ardent admirer of her dancing and acting talent. Just watch the famous dance scene of Izzat and you would be a fan too. My God ! what a fabulous dancer ! Posting the link.

1 – Jagi Badan Me Jwala, Saiyan Tune Kya Kar Dala ………..

The following 2 links showcase her naughty and lighter avatar, though in real life she was reticent and introvert.

2 – Ruk Ja Zara, Kidhar Ko Chala, Main Sadqe Tere Pe ………….

3 – Sar Pe Lamba Top Le Ke Aayega …….

It is sad that in her later years, she could barely move. It was heart-wrenching for me to see a feisty and fabulous dancer like Jayalalithaa in that condition. She was a woman any man could like , love and admire. She was vibrant. She was radiant. She was full of life. But during 2016 election campaign, she looked pale and lifeless. She could barely walk. I felt bad because she was only 4 years older than me. I thought that she will fight this battle too. But alas! that was not to be. She fell ill soon after her glorious political victory in elections and lost her battle of life after 75 days of struggle.

I am a fan but many Hindi film connoisseurs are not aware of her stupendous achievements in the field of cinema. For them she was Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, who was loved and feared alike.

For them I am placing some other facts of her career as a leading actress.

1 – Her acting career spanned 19 years. [ 1961 to 1980 ]

2 – She appeared in 140 films , primarily in the Tamil, Telugu and Kannada film industry.

3 – She also acted in 1 Malayalam , 1 Hindi & 1 English film.

4 – As a child artiste, Jayalalithaa acted in the Kannada-language film Sri Shaila Mahathme (1961), which had Rajkumar and Krishna Kumari in lead roles.

5 – Jayalalithaa starred in English film Epistle ( 1961) .

6 – As a child artiste, she played Krishna in a three-minute dance sequence held on stage in the Hindi film Manmauji (1962)

7 – She made her debut as the lead actress in Kannada film Chinnada Gombe (1964) at the age of 15, while still in school.

8 – Jayalalithaa starred in 28 box-office hit Tamil films with M.G. Ramachandran between 1965 and 1973. The first with MGR was B.R. Panthalu’s Aayirathil Oruvan in 1965 and their last film together was Pattikaattu Ponnaiya in 1973.

9 – Jayalalitha was paired opposite Sivaji Ganesan in 17 Tamil films.

10 – Jayalalithaa acted in 10 Tamil hit films with Ravichandran .

11 – Jayalalitha had 6 Tamil films with R. Muthuraman .

12 – Jayalalitha acted in 12 Telugu films as heroine opposite N. T. Rama Rao .

13 – Jayalalitha acted in 7 Telugu films with Akkineni Nageswara Rao .

14 – Jayalalithaa’s other Telugu films included 2 films with Krishna and 1 each with Sobhan Babu, Jaggaiah, Ramakrishna and Haranath.

15 – She made her debut in Malayalam films with Jesus (1973) and the film was huge hit.

16 – Her 100th film was Thirumangalyam (1974)  directed by A.Vincent.

17 – Her last film in Tamil was  Nadhiyai Thedi Vandha Kadal (1980) .

18 – The last film she worked on, in which she played the lead heroine, was a Telugu film Nayakudu Vinayakudu (1980) . It became the highest grosser of the year in Telugu.

19 – Jayalalithaa holds the record for having been the Tamil actress with maximum silver jubilee hits in her career – 85 hits of 92 Tamil films as main female lead heroine.

20 – she also has all 28 films in Telugu as silver jubilee hits.

21 – She had 119 box office hits of the total 125 films she did in various languages as the main female lead between 1961 and 1980 .

22 – She was the highest paid Indian actress from 1965–1980.

23 – She made guest appearances in 9 films and 6 of her films were dubbed into Hindi.

24 – She did double roles in eight films.

25 – Jayalalithaa wrote columns in the magazines like Bommai . She also wrote a column -Ennanga Selar in magazine Tughlaq in 1970s.

Need I say anything else for her accomplishments?

It is 2 days since she is gone. I am still numb. I am deeply saddened.

Farewell Kalai Selvi ! There will be no one like you ever.

img_8024

 

Vidur Acting Institute Logo

silver-jubilee

 

On behalf of all the students & staff of VIDUR Acting Institute , I pay my tributes to Kalai Selvi (work of art) of cinema and to Puratchi Thalaivi (revolutionary leader) of political arena.

[ List of films, dates and other information about Jayalalithaa have been taken from Wikipedia .

I am indebted and I express gratitude. ]

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.viduractinginstitute.com

www.facebook.com/vidur.chaturvedi

www.vidurfilms.com

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Longest Serving Chief Ministers of India


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MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           DECEMBER 30 , 2012           11.57 P.M.

After Narendra Modi‘s emphatic and 3rd consecutive electoral victory in 2012 Gujarat assembly elections , I came across a very startling fact through news papers . Times of India reported that including Narendra Modi , at present we have 6 serving Chief Ministers in various states of India , who have won 3 consecutive terms .

Corrected few errors.

Map of India (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Here is the list of 6 serving Chief Ministers , who have won 3 consecutive terms .

1 – Sheila Dikshit = Delhi – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 1998 – to date ]

2 – Manik Sarkar = Tripura – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 1998 – to date ]

3 – Naveen Patnaik = Odisha – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 2000 – to date ]

4 – Tarun Gogoi = Assam – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 2001 – to date ]

5 – Okram Ibobi Singh = Manipur – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 2002 – to date ]

&

6 – Narendra Modi = Gujarat – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 2002 – to date ]

It is very interesting to note that out of these 6 Chief Ministers ; 3 belong to Congress [ Indian National Congress ] , and 1 each to CPM [ Communist Party of India – Marxist ] , BJD [ Biju Janata Dal ] & BJP [ Bharatiya Janata Party ] .

Till date , there are only 13 Chief Ministers , who could win 3 or more than 3 terms consecutively . Here is the list :

1 – Jyoti Basu = West Bengal – 5 Consecutive Terms [ 1977 – 2000 ]

2 – Mohanlal Sukhadia = Rajasthan – 4 Consecutive Terms [ 1954 – 1971 ]

3 – Gegong Apang = Arunachal Pradesh – 4 Consecutive Terms [ 1980 – 1999 ]

4 – B. C. Roy = West Bengal – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 1948 – 1962 ]

5 – K. Kamaraj = Tamil Nadu – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 1954 – 1963 ]

6 – Vasantrao Naik = Maharashtra – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 1963 – 1975 ]

7 – M.G. Ramachandran = Tamil Nadu – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 1977 – 1987 ]

8 – Sheila Dikshit = Delhi – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 1998 – to date ]

9 – Manik Sarkar = Tripura – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 1998 – to date ]

10 – Naveen Patnaik = Odisha – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 2000 – to date ]

11 – Tarun Gogoi = Assam – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 2001 – to date ]

12 – Okram Ibobi Singh = Manipur – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 2002 – to date ]

&

13 – Narendra Modi = Gujarat – 3 Consecutive Terms [ 2002 – to date ]

If you dissect the list further , out of these 13 Chief Ministers ; 8 belong to Congress [ Indian National Congress ] , 2 belong to CPM [ Communist Party of India – Marxist ] and 1 each to AIADMK [ All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam ] , BJD [ Biju Janata Dal ] and BJP [ Bharatiya Janata Party ] .

I think in next assembly elections due in 2013 , this scenario is definitely going to change . 2 more BJP Chief Ministers are poised to win their 3rd consecutive term . They are , Shivraj Singh Chauhan and Raman Singh , the Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh respectively .

2013 assembly elections are going to unfold interesting chapter in the history of India .

It would be an interesting political story to share with my acting students of my acting institute  Vidur’s Kreating Charakters .

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.kreatingcharakters.net

www.vidurfilms.com

www.youtube.com/ividur

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

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Tamil Nadu : 25 Years Without M. G. R.


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MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           DECEMBER 28 , 2012           05.35 P.M.

Marudhur Gopala Ramachandran or M. G. Ramachandran or simply M. G. R. needs no introduction in Tamil Nadu . Though he died 25 years ago , still his popularity refuses to wane . I always knew about his phenomenal sway over the masses in Tamil Nadu but I personally experienced it during my recent visit to the state .

English: MGR with Kerala politician K.Karunaka...

MGR (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

One morning when I came out of my room in Subam Lodge , Vaitheeswaran Koil , I noticed that arched are being erected on the streets and photos of M. G. R. are being garlanded everywhere . Old hit songs of the films of M. G. R. were being played . People in large number were queuing in front of his photos and paying respect .

On 25th Death Anniversary , MGR Being Rememberedin a Village of Thanjavur

On 25th Death Anniversary , MGR Being Remembered in a Village of Thanjavur

I was astonished . I was astounded by the fact that it is his 25th death anniversary and still people are remembering him . To know the height of his popularity , please go through the description of his death scene , which I am quoting from Wikipedia :

” M.G.R. died on December 24, 1987 after his prolonged illness. He was 70. His death sparked off a frenzy of looting and rioting all over the state of Tamil Nadu. Shops, movie theatres, buses and other public and private property became the target of violence let loose all over the state. The police had to resort issuing shoot-at-sight orders. Tamilians from Bangalore rushed to Madras in trains to see the mortal remains of MGR. Govt had announced free train facility for this visit. The violence during the funeral alone left 29 people dead and 47 police personnel badly wounded. This state of affairs continued for almost a month all over the state of Tamil Nadu. Around one million people followed his remains, around 30 followers committed suicide and people had their heads tonsured.

After his death, his political party, the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, split between his wife Janaki Ramachandran and J. Jayalalithaa; they later merged in 1988.

In 1989 Dr. M. G. R. Home and Higher Secondary School for the Speech and Hearing Impaired was established in the erstwhile Residence MGR Gardens, Ramapuram, in accordance with his will dated January 17, 1986. His official residence at 27, Arcot Street, T.Nagar is now MGR Memorial House and is open for public viewing. His film studio, Sathya Studios has been converted into a women’s college. “

English: New emblem for All India Anna Dravida...

New emblem for All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Party, designed by B. Balamanigandan email:bbm@drmgr.org (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Now non – Tamil people can understand his impact and popularity among the masses . It was well – crafted image with the help of his films . He was the first major film star of India , who became Chief Minister of any state and won 3 consecutive elections in 1977 , 1980 and 1984 . He became Chief Minister in 1977 and remained in office till his death in 1987 . In 1984 assembly elections , though he was in the hospital for treatment and could not participate in electioneering , still he led his party to unprecedented victory . His images , from his hospital bed in the U.S.A. , were broadcast through cinema halls . And his party A.I.A.D.M.K. got 56% of assembly seats .

How he created this larger – than – life political image ? You can watch the song  “…….. neenga nalla irukkanum ……… ” of his film ” Idhayakkani ” [ 1975 ] . In the  ……neenga nalla irukkanum ……… song , he pays homage to his mentor Annadurai , whose image is clearly visible on the screen . His party flag is also fluttering in air and you could see that in the song itself his screen character is doing his philanthropic work . ” Idhayakkani “ was released 2 years before he became the Chief Minister . His last released film was ” Madurai Meeta Sundara Pandian ” [ 1978 ] .  This was his 136th film .  It was released 1 year after he became the Chief Minister . So through his 136 films , he created this kind of image , which is unheard of anywhere in the world . After becoming CM , the ongoing project ” Anna En Theivam “ was stopped and later on it was released by Bhagyaraj with modified story in which Bhagyaraj was the hero.

Apart from M.G.R. , no one in India or in world could replicate this kind of success . He was the first and till date only actor turned politician , who got this kind of mass popularity and could generate mass hysteria of this magnitude . N.T.R. or Nandamoori Tarak Ramarao was also an actor in Telugu film industry and he did succeed in Andhra Pradesh but his success was short – lived as he was soon toppled by his own son – in – law . President of U.S.A. , Ronald Reagan was also an actor in Hollywood but he was not a major star.

On my previous visit to Chennai in 2011 , I visited memorial of M.G.R. at Marina Beach to show my respect . In December 2012 , when I visited Chennai again , I was again able to pay respect to him on his 25th death anniversary .

At MGR Memorial , Marina Beach , Chennai

At MGR Memorial , Marina Beach , Chennai

With Poster of MGR in a Small Town

With Poster of MGR in a Small Town

It is sad that he died when he was only 70 . And 70 is not the age to leave the world . Had he been alive he would have been a formidable Prime Minister of India . In these days of coalition politics it would have been a real possibility .

Alas ! We lost him too early and too soon .

I think it would be fascinating to tell his story to all the students of my acting academy , Vidur’s Kreating Charakters . Who knows ? They might replicate M.G.R. story in their lives also .

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.kreatingcharakters.net

www.vidurfilms.com

www.youtube.com/ividur

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

Understanding Tamil Nadu – [ 4 ]


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CHENNAI – TAMIL NADU – INDIA           DECEMBER 26 , 2012           11.55 P.M.

 

The political state of Tamil Nadu in India was...

The political state of Tamil Nadu in India was created in 1969 when erstwhile Madras State was renamed (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

After four days stay , I left Vaitheeswaran Koil in the afternoon and reached Chennai in the night . Sitting in the room of my hotel Golden Tower , I am writing the 4th installment of ” Understanding Tamil Nadu ” .

In my last 3 blogs I have tried to explain some of the misconceptions about Tamil Nadu , its leaders and general public . For the large sections of North Indian people the image of Tamil Nadu of 1965 is hard to forget . I think I have explained everything in detail about Tamil Nadu of 1965 .

Conjeevaram Natarajan Annadurai , Muthuvel Karunanidhi , Marudhur Gopal Ramachandran and Jayalalithaa Jayaram have dominated the Tamil Nadu scene since 1967 . They all jointly left Dravid Kazhagam led by Erode Venkata Ramasamy Naicker ” Periyar ” a.k.a. E. V. Ramasamy Naicker ” Periyar ” and formed Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam a.k.a. D.M.K. in 1949 .

 

English: M. G. Ramachandran, K. A. Mathialagan...

M. G. Ramachandran, K. A. Mathialagan, C. N. Annadurai, C. Rajagopalachari, M. Karunanidhi at a private function in Jan 1968 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Conjeevaram Natarajan Annadurai a.k.a. C. N. Annadurai led D.M.K. to victory in 1967 elections and became the first non – Congress leader to form a majority government in any Indian state . He left Dravid Kazhagam and formed a new party because he was not willing to be part of anti national forces . He was against vivisection of India and was in favour of fighting elections under Indian Constitution . Atheism and anti – Hindi sentiments were the only two things which he accepted and borrowed from Dravid Kazhagam . He was instrumental in dropping the demand of independent Dravid Nadu of Periyar and berrying it forever in the pious land of Tamil Nadu .

C. N. Annadurai's House in Kanchipuram

C. N. Annadurai’s House in Kanchipuram

Anna Durai Memorial at Marina Beach

Anna Durai Memorial at Marina Beach

After his death in 1969 the post of chief minister went to Muthuvel Karunanidhi a.k.a. M. Karunanidhi . He followed almost same principles of C. N. Annadurai and atheism and anti – Hindi rhetoric still continues to be his credo .

But he has participated in the N.D.A. as well as U.P.A. governments of centre and his earlier bellicose attitude does not exist any more . A five time chief minister of Tamil Nadu is not the same M. Karunanidhi of yore . He is a changed man .

English: K. Karunanidhi, Chief Minister of Tam...

M. Karunanidhi, ex Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In 1972 Marudhur Gopala Ramachandran a.k.a. M. G. Ramachandran split the D.M.K. and formed Anna D.M.K. It was later on rechristened as All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam a.k.a. A.I.A.D.M.K. He is the only chief minister of Tamil Nadu , who holds the record of winning three consecutive terms as the chief minister . Though he followed atheism initially , but he was a practising Hindu and a follower of Bhagawan Muruga . During his regime , animosity towards North India disappeared and he followed a policy of no confrontation towards centre .

MGR Memorial

MGR Memorial

His successor Jayalalitha jayaram is a Hindu Brahmin and though she has not said anything openly but she is not an atheist . She is the only leader of prominence from Tamil Nadu , who can speak fluent Hindi . In my personal opinion she is only leader from Tamil Nadu who is capable of becoming the Prime Minister of India . I must say that she could , rather she should become the Prime Ministar of this nation . That day will be a red-letter day in our history and it will be a final blow to some of the misguided policies of E. V. Ramasamy Naicker ” Periyar ” .

Tamil Nadu legislative assembly election, 2011

Jayalalithaa , Incumbent Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Thus in Tamil Nadu of today a different picture emerges these days . Gone are the days of unnecessary bellicose attitude of Tamil politicians . Credit for this goes to Bharat Ratna M. G. Ramachandran . Again a personal opinion , but I think he would have been an excellent Prime Minister of India . But alas he died young . 70 is no age to go .

I will again say that Tamil Nadu is changing fast . Or it has already changed ?

I am waiting to narrate these findings to all the current students of  my acting school Vidur’s Kreating Charakters .

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.kreatingcharakters.net

www.vidurfilms.com

www.youtube.com/ividur

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

Understanding Tamil Nadu – [ 1 ]


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VAITHEESWARAN KOIL – TAMIL NADU – INDIA           DECEMBER 23 , 2012           11.55 P.M.

When I landed at Chennai Airport on December 21 , 2012 , it marked my 3rd visit to the Southern metropolis . On December 22 , 2012 , when I drove to Vaitheeswaran Koil in the morning , it marked my 2nd visit to the hinterlands of Tamil Nadu .

The political state of Tamil Nadu in India was...

The political state of Tamil Nadu in India was created in 1969 when erstwhile Madras State was renamed (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

People of my generation always view Tamil Nadu and Tamil people through the prism , which was created in 1967 , when the first Dravidian government was formed in Tamil Nadu under the leadership of C. N. Annadurai .

But if you want to understand Dravid Movement of Tamil Nadu , you have to study the history of Self Respect Movement and Justice Party stablished by E. V. Ramasamy Naicker a.k.a. Periyar . It all started in 1925 , much before 1967 , when Annadurai led D.M.K. [ Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam ] formed the first non – Congress government in Tamil Nadu .

In the history of India , 1925 seems to be a very unique year . In the Tamil Nadu E. V. Ramasamy Naicker ” Periyar ” started his Self Respect Movement and in the same year in Nagpur Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar started R.S.S. [ Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh ] . Periyar’s movement is considered separatist and anti national by many and Dr. Hedgewar’s movement is perceived ultra nationalist by the majority . But it is uncanny that both the movements were started in 1925 .

English: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Periyar E.V. Ram...

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on 06-Jan-1940 at Jinnah’s residence in Bombay. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Dr. Hedgewar

Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar , Founder of R.S.S. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It is said that Periyar was peeved by the superiority of Brahmins and their dominance in all the departments and strata of Tamil culture and life . He started this movement called Sel Respect and started espousing the cause of non – Brahmin castes of Tamil Nadu . He started breaking idols in the temple , advocated atheism , despised JANEU , the sacred thread and finally gave a call for the boycott of Brahmin priests in the marriages . His espousal of Self Respect Marriage had far – reaching repercussions and he became quite unpopular in rest of the country . His anti – Brahmin crusades drew wide – spread indignation and his opposition of Hindu deity worship was considered as anti Hindu and finally anti India .

Both the Tamilian parties ; Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam [ DMK ] and All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam [ AIADMK ] owe their existence to E. V. Ramasamy Naicker ” Periyar ” and his movement . And thus atheism and anti North India and anti Hindi credo became their life lines . And when DMK came to power in 1967 , Anna Durai accepted many things which were espoused by Periyar . Thus in the rest of India people became suspicious and majority started disliking DMK and it anti Hindi , anti God and anti North India policies .

I was definitely misguided by this prism , which I got while studying in Allahabad from 1967 to 1974 . My recent visits have changed my perception of Tamil Nadu , Tamil people and Tamil politics of Dravidian parties .

I will complete this ” Understanding Tamil Nadu ” series in my next blog and would like to share it with all the current students of my acting academy Vidur’s Kreating Charakters  after my return from Tamil Nadu .

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.kreatingcharakters.net

www.vidurfilms.com

www.youtube.com/ividur

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

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