Understanding Tamil Nadu – [ 1 ]


DSC01182

VAITHEESWARAN KOIL – TAMIL NADU – INDIA           DECEMBER 23 , 2012           11.55 P.M.

When I landed at Chennai Airport on December 21 , 2012 , it marked my 3rd visit to the Southern metropolis . On December 22 , 2012 , when I drove to Vaitheeswaran Koil in the morning , it marked my 2nd visit to the hinterlands of Tamil Nadu .

The political state of Tamil Nadu in India was...

The political state of Tamil Nadu in India was created in 1969 when erstwhile Madras State was renamed (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

People of my generation always view Tamil Nadu and Tamil people through the prism , which was created in 1967 , when the first Dravidian government was formed in Tamil Nadu under the leadership of C. N. Annadurai .

But if you want to understand Dravid Movement of Tamil Nadu , you have to study the history of Self Respect Movement and Justice Party stablished by E. V. Ramasamy Naicker a.k.a. Periyar . It all started in 1925 , much before 1967 , when Annadurai led D.M.K. [ Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam ] formed the first non – Congress government in Tamil Nadu .

In the history of India , 1925 seems to be a very unique year . In the Tamil Nadu E. V. Ramasamy Naicker ” Periyar ” started his Self Respect Movement and in the same year in Nagpur Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar started R.S.S. [ Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh ] . Periyar’s movement is considered separatist and anti national by many and Dr. Hedgewar’s movement is perceived ultra nationalist by the majority . But it is uncanny that both the movements were started in 1925 .

English: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Periyar E.V. Ram...

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on 06-Jan-1940 at Jinnah’s residence in Bombay. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Dr. Hedgewar

Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar , Founder of R.S.S. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It is said that Periyar was peeved by the superiority of Brahmins and their dominance in all the departments and strata of Tamil culture and life . He started this movement called Sel Respect and started espousing the cause of non – Brahmin castes of Tamil Nadu . He started breaking idols in the temple , advocated atheism , despised JANEU , the sacred thread and finally gave a call for the boycott of Brahmin priests in the marriages . His espousal of Self Respect Marriage had far – reaching repercussions and he became quite unpopular in rest of the country . His anti – Brahmin crusades drew wide – spread indignation and his opposition of Hindu deity worship was considered as anti Hindu and finally anti India .

Both the Tamilian parties ; Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam [ DMK ] and All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam [ AIADMK ] owe their existence to E. V. Ramasamy Naicker ” Periyar ” and his movement . And thus atheism and anti North India and anti Hindi credo became their life lines . And when DMK came to power in 1967 , Anna Durai accepted many things which were espoused by Periyar . Thus in the rest of India people became suspicious and majority started disliking DMK and it anti Hindi , anti God and anti North India policies .

I was definitely misguided by this prism , which I got while studying in Allahabad from 1967 to 1974 . My recent visits have changed my perception of Tamil Nadu , Tamil people and Tamil politics of Dravidian parties .

I will complete this ” Understanding Tamil Nadu ” series in my next blog and would like to share it with all the current students of my acting academy Vidur’s Kreating Charakters  after my return from Tamil Nadu .

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B. K. Karanjia : A Priceless Pen Put To Rest


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JUNE 29 , 2012           01.15 A.M.

Another icon of my youth faded into oblivion last week . One more titan of my growing years now ceases to exist . A priceless , mighty pen is put to rest .

Renowned film journalist and former chairman of the National Films Development Corporation [ NFDC ] , Burjor K. Karanjia , popularly known as ‘BK’ ,  passed away at the Jehangir hospital , Pune at 1.15 pm on June 22 , 2012 . He was 92 years old at the time of his death .

He is survived by two daughters ; Routton and Delshad  and a son Yuzud.

From Mumbai , Karanjia had moved to Pune in 2007 . He was staying in a flat at Sopan Baug . He had suffered a hip fracture in 2010 and had undergone a surgery and recovered miraculously.

He was a loner and would prefer to read a lot .

The Karanjia family moved to India from Quetta , Balochistan , Pakistan after Partition . He had named his south Mumbai residence as ” Quetta Terrace ” , which stood a short distance away from the historic Jinnah House.

English: Quetta City

Quetta City (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Quetta Railway Station, Quetta, Balochistan, P...

Quetta Railway Station, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Karanjia’s elder brother , Russy K. Karanjia , also a well-known journalist , had died five years ago .

Karanjia had qualified for the Indian Civil Services . However , he chose to pursue entertainment and film journalism , while Russy pursued investigative journalism .  After doing stints as a reporter , he went on to become the editor of  ” Filmfare ” , ” Screen ” , ” Cine Voice ” and ” Movie Times ” .

Filmfare magazine February 2006 edition

Filmfare magazine February 2006 edition (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Karanjia was the founder of the Films Financing Corporation . He later became chairman of the NFDC and set a precedent to finance low-budget movies for new and talented filmmakers .

B. K. Karanjia authored several books on the entertainment industry.

I used to admire his style of writing in Filmfare . I became a regular subscriber of Filmfare only because of him . In my younger days he became synonymous with Filmfare . It is sad that he is no more .
I mourn his demise deeply .

[ I have taken all the information from various articles available on the internet . ]

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Adieu Sharada Dwivedi : A Historian Becomes History


Sharada Dwivedi

Sharada Dwivedi

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           FEBRUARY 11, 2012           02.45 A.M.

It is sad and depressing that of late , I have to write so many obituaries . Last quarter of 2011 was full of sudden and sad demise of the so many eminent people of all walks of life . Now the first quarter of 2012 is also no less harsh .

Sharada Dwivedi , eminent historian , researcher and chronicler of Mumbai , died on February 06 , 2012 in Mumbai . She was only 69 at the time of her death .

Map of Mumbai

It is unfortunate that I could not meet her personally but I am familiar with her work . Born , brought up and educated in Bombay [ now Mumbai ] , she was in love with the city . She was familiar with every minute details of the old and neo – gothic style buildings of Mumbai . Every little piece of even hidden history was also known to her . She belonged to the city and her Bombay belonged to her .

She researched the history of all the famous monuments and buildings of Mumbai and was always caring for the conservation work and during conservation work , was very strict and particular regarding the minutest details .

English: Skyline of Mumbai from across Back Bay.

Skyline of Mumbai from Back Bay

English: The Taj Mahal Palace in Mumbai, India.

Taj Mahal Palace Hotel

Deutsch: Gateway of India in Mumbai in Maharas...

Gateway of India

English: Gateway of India in Mumbai, India. Fr...

Gateway of India

English: The David Sassoon Library in Mumbai, ...

David Sassoon Library

Česky: Nádraží čhatrapatiho Šivádžího v Bombaj...

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Formerly Victoria Terminus

Victoria Terminus Railway Station, Mumbai, India

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Formerly Victoria Terminus

English: Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus in Mumba...

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Formerly Victoria Terminus

Fort Market

Royal Asiatic Society

Museum - Formerly Prince of Wales Museum

Watson Hotel

High Court

Rudyard Kipling Bungalow

Elphinston College

Flora Fountain

A Road in South Mumbai

Eros Cinema

Capitol Cinema

Bandra Local Railway Station

Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation

She  was always eager to help and advise , when it came to the old buildings . She was part of Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee and was member of Urban design Research Institute . She was responsible for the inclusion of Opera House in the 2012 World Monument Watch . It was due to her efforts that Fort – Churchgate Precinct was included in the tentative list of the UNESCO World Heritage Monument .

Chawls of Mumbai

The above mentioned chawl and this below mentioned famous Ambani building , Antilia are also a part of her beloved Bombay . She was interested in the city of Mumbai and wanted to preserve every aspect of the city . No one knows her reaction or what she actually felt about the chawls of Mumbai and what she thought about some of the present day structures like Antilia . Though her views about the centuries old Elephanta Caves are well – known and well chronicled .

Antila - Ambani House

Elephanta Caves

Apart from taking part in conservation work , she wrote and co – wrote many books on Mumbai and the historically important British era buildings . Her famous books are :

1 – Bombay , The City Within [ 1995 ]

2 – Banganga , Sacred Tank [ 1996 ]

3 – Fort Walks [ 1999 ]

4 – Anchoring A City Line , The History of The Western Suburban Railway And Its headquarters in Bombay [ 2000 ]

5 – The Jehangir Art Gallery [ 2002 ]

6 – The Victoria Memorial School for the Blind [ 2002 ]

6 – Taj Mahal Palace Hotel [ 2011 ]

Her other famous books are :

1 – Lives of the Indian Princes [ 1984 ]

2 – Reach for the Stars [ 1993 ] – the corporate history Blue Star Ltd

3 –  The Broken Flut [ 1994 ] – a Children’s Novel

4 – The Maharaja [ 1999 ]

5 – A Celebration of Style [ 2000 ] Abu Jani & Sandeep Khosa

It is sad that a chronicler and historian of this eminence left us and that too , so soon . A historian par – excellence , herself , became history .

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250 anos de “A Terceira Batalha de Panipat”

Postado em 16 de janeiro de 2011 por Vidur [Kamal Nayan Chaturvedi]
1 Votes

Em 14 de janeiro de 2011, quando hindus em todo o mundo estavam celebrando Makar Sankranti, muitos não se lembrar que neste mesmo dia 250 anos atrás Sadashivrao Bhau juntamente com o seu exército estava lutando uma batalha perdida para nós no Amb Kala perto de Panipat . Conhecido na história como a Terceira Batalha de Panipat “, onde o exército de Marathas lutou afegão Ahmed Shah Durrani invasor aka Ahmed Shah Abdali. Batalha terminou em poucas horas e cerca de 60.000 / 70.000. soldados foram mortos. A linha de Maratha foi de 12 km.transversalmente, com a artilharia na frente, protegido por tropas de infantaria, enquanto a cavalaria foi instruído a esperar atrás da artilharia. Este erro tático foi fatal.Sem qualquer instrução cavalaria de espera começou a avançar causando vítimas entre os soldados Maratha que levam à derrota infame. Embora Marathas perdeu a batalha devido a erro estratégico, ninguém se atreveu a atacar a Índia após esta batalha há muitos anos.

The flag of the Maratha Empire.

Image via Wikipedia

Imagem via Wikipedia – Bandeira do Império Maratha

A Terceira Batalha de Panipat ocorreu em 14 de Janeiro de 1761, em Panipat(Haryana Estado, Índia), cerca de 60 milhas (95,5 km) ao norte de Delhi . A batalha opôs o francês fornecido artilharia e cavalaria dos Marathas contra a pesadacavalaria e artilharia montada (zamburak e jizail) dos afegãos liderado por Ahmad Shah Durrani , um grupo étnico pashtun , também conhecido como Ahmad Shah Abdali. A batalha é considerada uma das maiores batalhas travadas no século 18.

Flag of the Emirate of Herat, and of the Durra...Imagem via Wikipedia – Bandeira do Império do Afeganistão

O declínio do Império Mughal levou a conquistas territoriais para a Confederação Maratha. Ahmad Shah Abdali, entre outros, não estava disposto a permitir que os ganhos dos Marathas ir desmarcada. Em 1759, ele levantou um exército das tribos pashtun e fez vários ganhos contra as guarnições menores. Os Marathas, sob o comando do Sadashivrao Bhau , respondeu, reunindo um exército de entre 70.000-100.000 pessoas com as quais eles saquearam a capital Mughal de Delhi . Seguiu-se uma série de escaramuças ao longo das margens do rio Yamuna em Karnal eKunjpura que finalmente se transformou em um cerco de dois meses de duração conduzido por Abdali contra os Marathas.

High Resolution Flag of the Mughal Empire in SVGImagem via Wikipedia – Bandeira do Império Mogol

O local específico da batalha em si é contestada por historiadores, mas a maioria considera ter ocorrido em algum lugar perto de moderno-dia Kaalaa Aamb e Estrada Sanauli. A batalha durou vários dias e envolveu mais de 125.000 homens.Prolongadas escaramuças ocorreram, com perdas e ganhos em ambos os lados. As forças lideradas por Ahmad Shah Durrani saiu vitorioso após destruir vários flancos Maratha. A extensão das perdas em ambos os lados é fortemente contestada por historiadores, mas acredita-se que entre 60.000-70.000 foram mortos em combates, enquanto o número de feridos e prisioneiros tomados variam consideravelmente. O resultado da batalha foi a suspensão dos avanços Maratha do Norte.

English: The Indian subcontinent in 1760.

Image via Wikipedia

Imagem via Wikipedia – Índia em 1760

O Império Mughal estava em declínio desde a morte do imperador mogol Aurangzeb , em 1707. A queda foi acelerada pela invasão da Índia por Nadir Shah em 1739.Rebeliões continuado pelos Marathas no sul, ea separação de facto de um número de estados (incluindo Hyderabad e Bengal ), enfraqueceu o estado ainda mais.Dentro de alguns anos de morte de Aurangzeb, os Marathas havia revertido todos os seus ganhos territoriais no Deccan, e tinha conquistado quase todo o território Mughal na Índia central e norte. Mughals tinha, assim, tornar-se apenas as cabeças titulares de Delhi. Em 1761, eles queriam expandir mais ao norte e noroeste, onde o seu caminho cruzou Ahmad Shah Abdali – o governante do Afeganistão, que tinha vindo a fazer incursões no Punjab e nomeou seu filho como seu governador.

An approximate political map of the Indian sub...Imagem via Wikipedia – Mapa do Império Maratha

Os Marathas ganhou o controle de uma parte considerável da Índia no intervalo (1707-1757). Em 1758, eles ocupavam Delhi, capturado Lahore e expulsou Timur Shah Durrani , o filho e vice-rei do governante afegão, Ahmad Shah Abdali. Este foi o ponto alto da expansão Maratha, onde os limites de seu império se estendia do norte para o Indus eo Himalaia, e no sul quase até a extremidade da península. Este território foi governado pelo Peshwa , que falou de colocar seu filho Vishwasrao no trono Mughal. No entanto Delhi ainda permaneceu sob o controle nominal de Mongóis, os principais intelectuais muçulmanos, incluindo Shah Waliullah e outros clérigos muçulmanos na Índia e no Punjab, que estavam alarmados com estes desenvolvimentos. Em desespero, eles recorreram a Ahmad Shah Abdali, o governante do Afeganistão, para deter a ameaça.

Ahmad Shah Durrani, founded Afghanistan in 1747.

Image via Wikipedia

Imagem via Wikipedia – Ahmad Shah Abdali

Assim, após convite devido Ahmad Shah Abdali atacado Índia e no dia auspicioso de Makar Sankranti Sadashivrao Bhau perdeu a batalha de Panipat. A derrota infame ainda agita os Marathas. Há um ditado em Marathi Tyanche Panipat Jhale [Ele sucumbiu à sua Panipat] Metaforicamente Panipat tornou-se para Marathas, o que Waterloo foi para Napoleão. Ele quebrou o orgulho Maratha, ele interrompeu seus avanços em direção norte da Índia e, finalmente, a sua imagem prejudicada.Mas uma coisa estava intacta e continua intacta até hoje e que é o seu valor e seu orgulho. Mesmo depois de derrotar A Terceira Batalha de Panipat continua a ser um capítulo glorioso da nossa história, porque não foi por falta de coragem ou bravura, mas isso aconteceu devido a um erro tático e estratégico.

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Jasmine Revolution in Burma [ Myanmar ]


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JANUARY 21, 2012           01.00 A.M.

2011 will be known in the world history as the year of Jasmine Revolutions . It started with Tunisia .The despotic ruler of Tunisia , Zine El Abidine Ben Ali was forced to quit his post after 24 years of tyrannical rule .

Zine El Abidine Ben Ali of Tunisia

Egypt was the second nation to be engulfed by the Jasmine Revolution . After having an iron grip on Egypt for 30 long years , Hosni Mubarak was thrown out of power by the rampaging masses .

Hosni Mubarak of Egypt

Soon the revolution reached at the door – step of Muammar al – Gaddafi . After fierce resistance of few months , Gaddafi was thrown out of power and was subsequently killed . His despotic and tyrannical rule lasted for 42 long years .

Muammar al - Gaddafi of Libya

Soon after Libya , Jasmine Revolution reached at the doors of other despotic rulers of Syria , Yemen and China . Syria’s Bashar al – Assad is currently facing the brunt of the masses . 10 years of Bashar al – Assad and 30 years of his father Hafez al – Assad‘s rule is now deeply resented .

Bashar al - Assad of Syria

Yemen is another country , ruled by a totalitarian ruler , Ali Abdullah Saleh. His 21 year – old rule is going to end soon . Jasmine Revolution is furiously knocking at his door .

Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen

At present China is trying to control the Jasmine Revolution . But the question remains , will she be able to check the marching footsteps of the disgruntled masses ?

It is very surprising that in the last quarter of 2011 , Burma [ Also Known as Myanmar ] got rid of  the military rule of 49 years , but the world is slow to react to the new reality . Many in India don’t know much about our eastern neighbour .

Than Shwe , The Military Ruler of Burma

To know about Burma , we should look at the map of British Indian Empire . Map of British India is very interesting . In comprises present day India , Pakistan , Bangladesh , Burma [ Present Day Myanmar ] and Ceylon [ Present Day Sri Lanka ] . People know that West Pakistan [ Now Pakistan ] and East Pakistan [ Now Bangladesh ] were part of India before 1947 . But today’s generation do not know that Burma [ Now Myanmar ] , and Ceylon [ Now Sri Lanka ] , were also part of British Indian Empire .

English: Map of the British Indian Empire from...

IMap of British Indian Empire

1864 Johnson's Map of India (Hindostan or Brit...

Map of British India

At the time of Independence of India in 1947 , British rulers divided the Indian Empire into 4 free and sovereign states . India , Pakistan , Burma and Ceylon became 4 independent states .

Britain's holdings on the Indian subcontinent ...

Proposed Divisions of British Indian Empire

India and Pakistan became two independent states in 1947 . Burma became independent on January 04 , 1948 . Burma is the 40th largest country in the world and 2nd largest country in South East Asia . Burma is also the 24th most populous country in the world .

Political Map of Burma

Locator map showing India and Burma

Location Map Showing India & Burma

After independence in 1948 , Burma was a democratic country for 14 years but unfortunately , on March 02 , 1962 military ousted civilian rulers in a coup . Military junta ruled Burma till 2011 . Then junta was dissolved and a civilian government was installed again .

The 14 states and regions of Burma

14 Provinces of Burma

During it’s 49 year rule military junta changed many things in Burma . The name of country was changed to Myanmar . Though it is not recognised by the world community and the majority population of Burma . Name of the capital Rangoon was also changed to Yangon . Later on capital was shifted to Naypyidaw in Mandalay province .

Aung San Suu Kyi

After 15 years of detention , Burma’s pro – democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi was released on November 13 , 2010 . In October 2011 many political prisoners were freed and trade unions were legalised . Jasmine revolution seems to be booming in Burma and the country is on the verge of democratic rule .

I have a childhood fascination for Burma . My maternal grand-uncle and maternal grand-aunt lived in Rangoon , Burma during 2nd World War . They used to tell many thrilling stories about Burma . Their stay in Rangoon was also full of very interesting anecdotes . Whenever I used to visit their place along with my mother , I used to sit with them and used to hear their stories of Burma . Now I know that many stories were fabricated but they kindled my fascination about Rangoon and Burma and my childhood fascination still continues .

When I started my studies , I read about Bahadur Shah Zafar and about his imprisonment and his subsequent death in Rangoon . Then I read about Lokmanya Tilak’s infamous jail term and 6 years [ 1908 – 1914 ] that he spent in Mandalay jail . My relationship with Burma was fortified in my mind .

A Hindi film song of ” Patanga ” [ 1949 ] also helped to build up the Burmese fascination . The song MERE PIYA GAYE RANGOON ; WAHAN SE KIYA HAI TELEPHONE , TUMHARI YAAD SATATI HAI …….. still reverbarates in the corridors of my sub – conscious . I haven’t seen this Shyam , Nigar Sultana , Yakub , Gope and Cuckoo starrer , which was directed by H. S. Rawail . But whenever I used to hear C. Ramchandra’s immortal song , specially its lines ; TUM BURMA KI GALIYON ME HO , AUR PHIROON MAIN DEHRADUN ………. TUMHARI YAD SATATI HAI …… I used to feel that I am also roaming in the lanes and by – lanes of Rangoon and Burma .

Another Hindi film ” Burmah Road ” [ 1962 ] again inflamed my imagination about Burma . This Ashok Kumar and Kumkum starrer film was forgettable but a song DAGHABAZ HO , BANKE PIYA KAHO NA , DAGHABAZ HO ……. is still fresh in my memory . Lata Mangeshkar’s voice made this song immortal and Majrooh Sultanpuri’s lyrics were set to tune by Chitragupta .

Since the country is on the road to democracy , I hope to visit Burma one day and would love to roam around in the lanes and by – lanes of Rangoon . May be this will happen soon , may be very soon .or may be in far distant future . I would love to visit Burma , visit Rangoon and would love to meet Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi .

Long live Aung San Suu Kyi !!!

Aung San Suu Kyi

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South Sudan : Birth of A Nation


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JANUARY 08 , 2012           11.45 P.M.

It is not that every day a new country is born . It happens occasionally . It happens once in a life time . So when I read about the vivisection of Sudan , a country in Africa , I was pleasantly surprised .

In my 60 years of existence , I have seen birth of 28 major countries . I might be forgetting some tiny countries but 28 major countries took birth during my life time and I vividly remember those epoch – making moments . So when Sudan was split into two , I decided to chronicle these events .

Bangladesh :

===============

English: East Bengal Map

Map of Bangladesh

Map of Bangladesh

First major country , whose birth I remember , was Bangladesh . She came into being in 1971 after a bloody and gory battle with Pakistan . Formerly East Pakistan , the new country Bangladesh , became independent in 1971 .

Birth of Bangladesh is proof that religion can not be a binding factor for a country . In the case of Bangladesh , the common religion , Islam failed to unite two wings of Pakistan .

Bangladesh became a member of United Nation Organization in 1974 .

Vietnam :

=============

Map of Vietnam with Indo - China Nations

Vietnam’s journey as a nation is fascinating . From Imperial China to French colonizers she travelled through the centuries and the journey was an arduous one at times . Later on Vietnam accepted communism , she was divided into two ; North Vietnam and South Vietnam . North Vietnam was communist and South Vietnam was capitalist . Hanoi and Saigon were the capital cities of two Vietnams respectively . Both parts of Vietnams were united on July 02 , 1976 .

Vietnam is one nation . She was divided into two states . But nationalism prevailed and finally Vietnam was united again and again became one nation .

Germany :

==============

Map of East & West Germany

Map of Germany

History of Germany is very fascinating . Germany’s case , like Vietnam , is the classic case of a nation triumphing over a state . Basically a nation , Germany was divided into two states after 1945 . Communist East Germany was called German Democratic Republic with East Berlin as capital . Capitalist  West Germany was called Federal Republic of Germany with Bonn as capital .

After just 45 years of vivisection , German nationalism prevailed and Germany once again became one nation in 1990 . Berlin became the national capital and Berlin wall was demolished .

Case of Germany is like Vietnam . Both are one nation . Both were divided into two states . Political divisions like capitalism and communism were unable to divide them and they finally became one nation .

Union of Soviet Socialist Republic :

=================================

Map of U.S.S.R.

If Vietnam and Germany are the symbols of victory of nation over state , then USSR is the symbol of failure of state in front of nationalism . Vietnam and Germany were one nation divided in two states . Finally they became one nation . USSR was one state with 15 nations and was dissolved in 1991 after 69 years of artificial existence and 15 independent and sovereign nations came into being .

Russia , Ukrain , Belarus , Uzbekistan , Turkmenistan , Tajikistan , Azerbijan , Kazakhistan , Kirghizstan , Georgia , Armenia , Moldova , Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania were merged to form USSR [ Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ] . They became independent in 1991 .

It was most momentous time of my life . Mighty USSR just collapsed in front of my eyes and 15 new nations were born . It never seemed probable even a month before December 1991 that an invincible looking USSR will cease to exist .

All 15 nations became members of  U. N. O. in 1992 .

Yugoslavia ;

=================

Map of Yugoslavia

Former Parts of Yugoslavia

After fall of USSR , other communist nations were also became vulnerable . Yugoslavia , another classic case of one state and several nations , became unstable. Artificially created state of Yugoslavia disintegrated in 1991 after demise of Josip Broz Tito and collapse of Union of Soviet Socialist Republic .

Croatia , Serbia , Slovenia , Mecedonia , Montenegro and Bosnia & Herzegovina asserted their nationalistic aspirations and became independent and sovereign nations .

Off all these 6 nations ; Croatia , Slovenia and Bosnia & Herzegovina became members of U. N. O. in 1992 . Mecedonia became a member in 1993 , Serbia joined in 2000 and the 6th one Montenegro became member of U. N. O. in 2006 .

Czechoslovakia :

==================

Map of Czechoslovakia

Czech Republic & Slovakia

After USSR and Yugoslavia , another communist country , Czechoslovakia , collapsed soon . She was also one state and two nations . On January 01 , 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia became independent and they both joined U. N. O. in 1993 .

South Sudan :

===============

Sudan’s case is different . She is one nation but religion divides them . North Sudan is Islamic and finds solace in the comity of Arab nations . South Sudan is Christian and is not comfortable with Arab identity .

After 5 decades of guerrilla struggle and loss of 2 million lives , South Sudan came into existence on July 09 , 2011 . She became Africa’s 54th state with Juba as the capital of the new state .

Religion failed to unite Pakistan and Bangladesh . In Sudan’s case religion divided them . Fate of South Sudan is unknown and precarious . Majority of its people live on less than a dollar a day . Almost three-quarter of  adults cannot read or write . Only 1% has a bank account .

Sudan with Khartoum as its capital is Islamic and prefers Arab identity . While South Sudan with Juba as its capital is Christian and prefers western identity . South Sudan is the 54th African state and 193rd member of United Nations Organization .

India South Sudan Locator

Location of India & South Sudan

Sudan - South Sudan - Locator map

Location of Sudan & South Sudan

Map of Sudan

Map of North & South Sudan

English: Seal of the Government of Southern Sudan

Seal of Government of South Sudan

So South Sudan became the 54th African State . She became newest and 193rd country of the world . She became the 28th nation to become independent in my life time . As I stated earlier , countries don’t take birth everyday . Birth of a nation is a rare experience . I am lucky that I could witness birth of 28 nations in my life .

It is rare . It is unique . It is not going to happen again . Welcome 193rd nation of this earth !

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

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Jagjit Singh Ji ! Chitthi Na Koi Sandesh , Kahan Tum Chale Gaye ?


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA             DECEBER 31 , 2011                   7.00 P.M.

On October 09th , when I came to my institute and started going through all the twitter postings , I found a tweet , to my shock and dismay, about the sad demise of Ghazal King Jagjit Singh Ji. I knew about his medical condition and also that he was admitted in Lilawati hospital due to brain haemorrhage , but still I was hoping against hope that he would survive .

Jagjit Singh and his singer wife Chitra Singh were not only one of the most popular Ghazal singers of India but they are solely responsible for the resurrection of this genre of singing , popular among royalty of South East Asia . Before the advent of Jagjit Singh , Ghazals had classical base and flowery and chaste Urdu poetry and that too heavily Persianised Urdu . Because of this , genre of Ghazal became the thing of wealthy Zamindars and the selected royalty. This was the reason of limited reach of Ghazals and its subsequent decadence in popularity.

English: Cropped version of File:SAARC.PNG foc...

Ghazal Loving Countries of South East Asia

When Jagjit Singh came to the scene , he realized the precarious situation and single-handedly fought and changed the scene. He chose easy but meaningful and poignant words, simplified the classical Ragas and introduced modern orchestra. His music arrangement was also very modern and catchy. Puritans frowned , as they always do , whenever a change is ushered in , but masses lapped this new kind of Ghazals and slowly puritans also fell in line because you can’t fight with the masses.

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

SAARC Countries

” The unforgettables ” [ 1976 ] , was the first LP records of Jagjit Singh and Chitra Singh and it hit  the market like a tarnado. It created sensation and a new icon was ushered on the firmament of the music world. I am proud to say that I have LP record of ” The unforgettables ” .

English: Lata Mangeshkar releases music album ...

jagjit Singh with Lata mangeshkar

But the journey of Jagjit Singh was not easy . Born In Sri Ganga Nagar , Rajasthan on February 08 , 1941 , Jagjit Singh started learning music at early age . He came to Mumbai in 1961 and started his struggle . Success came to him after 15 long and arduous struggling years . But once it came , Jagjit Singh created history .

Combined album of film songs sung by him ; ” Arth “ and Saath Saath is India’s largest selling album of all times . His ghazal album ” Sajda “ with Lata Mangeshkar is the largest selling album of all times in India in non – film category .

He gave music for films like ; ” Prem Geet ” [ 1981 ] , ” Arth ” [ 1982 ] , ” Saath Saath ” [ 1982 ] ,  and TV serials like ; ” Mirza Ghalib [ 1988 ] and ” Kahkashan ” [ 1991 ] . Just like his ghazal albums , all the songs of these albums were hits . In total he has given us 80 albums and all of them are best sellers .

Besides ghazals . Jagjit Singh also sung bhajans and gurbani . His albums like ; ” Maa ” , ” Hare Krishna ”  and ” Hey Ram … Hey Ram “ and ” Man Jeetayi jagjit “ are much renowned and acclaimed .

His concerts were almost always sold out .

English: Jagjit Singh performing live at Symph...

Jagjit Singh - Live Performance at Symphony

I am ashamed that I am posting this obituary after 3 months . I started writing immediately after his death . But it remained incomplete because so many luminaries died in the last quarter of 2011 and I was travelling incessantly .

I am ashamed for the delay and saddened at the loss of the world of music .

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

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