Nagaland Peace Accord & Narendra Modi


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In a remarkable move the officials of government of India signed a peace agreement with a  major Naga tribal group, waging a guerrilla war with the central government for over past six decades. The agreement besides restoring peace in the region also attempts to build institutions bestowing greater autonomy to Naga tribes. The peace pact reached between the government of India and the largest militant faction of the North East, National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah), NSCN (IM) can significantly bring down the insurgent insurrection. While the finer details of the accord and the mechanisms of its execution are still under wraps the move is welcomed by all political parties. Modi recalling it as a major triumph under the flag of Act East Policy reiterated that restoring peace, economic and social progression of North East has been his utmost priority.

To appreciate the crux of the issue, it is worth recapitulating the genesis and epic-proportions of the Naga insurgency tale. The undivided Goalpara district or the Assam province which was under the control of the Ahom rulers of Burma became part of the Bengal Subah of the Mughal Empire after conflicts. Subsequently in 1765 it fell into the hands of East India Company along with Bengal and became part of the special administrative region of North-Eastern parts of Rangpur. After a series of Anglo- Burmese wars and enforcement of Doctrine of Lapse the entire region of Assam was annexed to British India by 1833 (1). British later on captured several Naga territories and consolidated them under the Naga Hills district in Assam. Actually each Naga village was sovereign and ruled by tribal heads and Naga tribes had no common identity. British guilefully permitted the penetration of Christian Missionaries into the region and inadvertently religion fostered unity between Naga tribes.

Nagas were recruited by British during World War I as labour corps and sent to France. But they were alienated from rest of the British Indian troops and this alienation promoted unity between them. Upon returning to their homeland Nagas with few British officials formed the Naga Club in 1918.  Under the government act of 1919 British declared Naga Hill district as backward tract and treated it as separate entity. In 1928 Naga club submitted a memorandum to Simon Commission requesting that Nagas be allowed to have right to self-determination after their departure from India. In 1930’s the Naga tribes under the leader of Haipou Jadonang and Rani Gaidinliu rebelled against British. As per Government Act of India 1935, the Naga Hill district was declared as an Excluded area administered by Governor of Assam.

In 1945 C. R. Pawsney formed a Naga Hills District Tribal Race which evolved into Nagaland National Council (NNC) under the leadership of Angami Zapi Phizo. Phizo considered as Father of Nagas led an armed secessionist revolution and campaigned for a sovereign Naga nation. On August 14th 1947, a day before India’s independence Phizo declared the independence of Nagaland. Anticipating a stiff opposition from the insurgent group of Nagas prior to declaration of independence in June, 1947 the governor of Assam Sir Akbar Hyderi initiated peace talks. He signed a 9-point agreement with moderate members of NNC. The Hyderi accord agreed to grant judicial, executive and legislative powers and autonomy in land related matters. But the constituent assembly failed to ratify the accord that envisioned Naga demand for a sovereign state with India as a Guardian power for 10 years.  Instead they were granted district autonomy within Indian constitution.

In 1948 an agreement was reached between NCN and Government of India recognising Naga people right to self-determination (3). But NNC under the leadership of Phizo intensified their demand to establish a sovereign Naga state. He conducted a referendum in 1951 wherein nearly 99% voted for an independent Nagaland. Phizo has called for boycott of general elections in 1952 and launched violent secessionist movement. He also met Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in 1951 and 1952 with a petition for sovereign status and separate electorate for Nagas but was refused. He was later in Burma arrested for illegal entry. Phizo then created an underground government, Naga Federal Government (NFG) and Naga Federal Army (NFA) on March 22nd 1956 (4). To quell the raising insurgency, government inducted Armed Forces and enforced Armed Forced (Special Powers) Act in 1958. Phizo escaped to East Pakistan in 1956 and lived in exile till death in London.

In the meanwhile government of India placed Naga Hills District under the tribal districts “Part A” category as per the sixth schedule of constitution, as an autonomous district governed by Governor of Assam with a limited representation in Assam state legislative assembly and Indian Parliament. This arrangement was refused by the Naga leaders. Hence along Tuensang division it was placed in “Part B” category as an area in the North East Frontier Agency under the administrative authority of Ministry of External Affairs in 1957. Following negotiations with secessionists the region was later converted into a full-fledged state of Nagaland in 1963, December 1st.

Government constituted a peace mission consisting of Jaya Prakash Narain, Assam chief minister Bimala Prasad Chaliha and Rev Michael Scott that signed an Agreement for Suspension of Operation (AGSOP) with insurgent groups in April, 1964. But relentless violations by NNC and NFG continued to rock the state in spite of the six rounds of peace negotiations. The peace mission was abandoned in 1967. In 1972 government launched a massive counter-insurgency operation and banned the NNC and NFG under the unlawful associations act. Situation was brought under control by 1975 and a section of the NNC and NFG on November 11th 1975 signed the famous Shillong Accord. Consequently the Naga rebels accepted the supremacy of Indian constitution, renounced arms and demand for secession of Nagaland from India (5).

But peace still eluded this region as nearly 150 rebels who were away in China and Burma for training during the signing of agreement refused to accept the final settlement with Indian government. Among them the trio of Isak Chisi Swu, Thuingaleng Muviah and S, Khaplang blatantly rejected the agreement and in the next five years parted from ways with NNC and created National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) in 1980. This group quickly emerged as a strong rebel contingent and NNC-NFG became less active. But by 1988 the rebellion within the group resulted in splintering of the unit into NSCN (IM) and NSCN (K) and the names of factions denote the rebel leaders heading them. In 1990 after death of Phizo, NNC split into NNC (A) led by Phizo’s daughter Adino and NNC (K) headed by Vice-president Khodao Yanthan. NNC (K) later merged with NSCN (IM) (6). Each of the splinter groups represents different tribes. Konyaks group is led by S. Khaplang of NSCN (K), a Hemie Naga from Myanmar. Tangkhuls led by Isak, a Sema from Nagaland and Muivah a Tangkhul from Ukhrul district of Manipur.

Irrespective of the tribes they represent, the ultimate aspiration of the Naga leaders has been to merge the contiguous areas of the Naga territories and create a greater Nagaland or Nagalim, four times the size of Nagaland. The putative Naga territory encompasses districts in Assam, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar. Hence each of these states is wily of such a demand. This desire for Nagalim is so entrenched that even the elected representatives of the Nagaland assembly still continue to pass the resolution on the need for carving out Nagalim. India signed cease-fire agreements with NSCN (IM) in 1997 and with NSCN (K) in 2001. While NSCN (IM) has climbed down on their demand for a sovereign state for Nagas, they are particular about the creation of Nagalim. During the ceasefire period violent conflicts erupted between these two rival factions of NSCN.  Government of India held as many as 80 negotiations through interlocutors and monitored by the ceasefire commission with these factions. It emerged that NSCN (IM) has been sincere in its commitment.

NSCN (K) violated ceasefire agreement in March 2015, drawing support from ULFA, Bodos and Manipur militants it surfaced as United National Liberation Front of Western South East Asia. It executed an attack on Indian Army which resulted in the death of 18 jawans in Manipur on June 4th 2015. The present accord is termed historic as government clinched an agreement with the largest Naga groups which in turn can pave way for bringing other minor Naga factions on board. Prime Minister Modi is believed to have effectively utilised the good will created by Atal Bihari Vajpayee who wooed Nagas with his immaculate gestures and open confessions. He was the only Prime Minister fondly remembered by people of Nagaland for appreciating and recognising their unique history and frankly admitting the failures of Indian government that left trails of blood in the state (7).

According the interlocutor RN Ravi, the ground work for the accord has been done under the UPA government but the indecisive leadership frittered away the opportunity for a major breakthrough in 2012. Perhaps, the recent ceasefire violations by NSCN (K) propelled central leadership into swift action and spurred them to clinch an agreement with its rival faction NSCN (IM). But for the collaborative action of Ajit Doval, interlocutor RN Ravi, Nagaland governor PB Acharya and the Naga People’s front leader TR Zeliang this mission couldn’t have been achieved.

While the details of the initial framework agreement are sketchy, it is believed that since government of India will not compromise on the sovereignty and integrity of the country, redrawing of state boundaries may be ruled out. But the accord might have entailed upon greater autonomy to the Naga dominated regions in the various states. While article 371 (A)   already accords special status to Nagaland, government might consider strengthening it further (8).

The accord signed by Modi is truly iconic as it comes after a long duration of unrelenting parley of peace negotiations with promise of restoring the peace in the region marred with violence. The pact epitomizes the exemplary statesmanship of Modi and his steadfast commitment to make North East region more inclusive. The true test for the government lies in carefully dealing with different state governments of the region, in decommissioning arms of rebels and their absorption into mainstream and chalking out a robust long-term development projects for the North East.

[ For this article I am indebted to Mr. Ramaharitha Pusarla . He published the article on August 06, 2015 under the title of “Historic Naga Accord” in the website MyIndMakers. I am posting verbatim that very article and I express my deep gratitude and indebtedness to Mr. Pusarla. ]

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West Bengal Needs Mamata Banerjee


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MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           APRIL 06 , 2013           11.40 P.M.

It is hard to defend a death . It is difficult not to sympathise with the grieving family of a 23 year – old boy Sudipto Gupta . It is suicidal to swim against the tide . It is politically wrong to support a government , which is accused by one and all , for murdering a young boy . But still there is a case in favour of Mamata Banerjee and Trinamool Congress . Before getting swayed away by the orchestrated public outcry , before being inundated by the flood of tears of cunning comrades , pause for a moment and think properly .

English: Trinamool Congress chief Mamata Baner...

Trinamool Congress chief Mamata Banerjee (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The dead boy belonged to SFI [ Student Federation of India ] . This so called youth organization is affiliated to CPI-M [ Communist Party of India – Marxist ] . And it is prudent to recall that CPI-M ruled West Bengal for almost 4 decades . And then came Mamata Banerjee and she single-handedly defeated the mighty ,  invincible comrades . And the comrades are not supposed to give up power easily and willingly. Comrades are desperate to dislodge Mamata Banerjee since then .

Every politician can falter . May be Mamata Banerjee made some mistakes . But she is an elected Chief Minister of West Bengal . She should be allowed to rule for 5 years and that too peacefully. CPI-M should understand this , and if they are not willing to understand then they should be forced to see the writing on the wall . It should be drilled into their dark , empty heads .

I am forced to remember happenings from the day one , when Mamata Banerjee took charge of West Bengal . She went to inspect a hospital and the doctor on duty questioned her presence in the hospital . Is it not proper for an elected Chief Minister of a state to visit a hospital ? Should a people’s representative seek doctor’s permission before visiting a hospital ? The answer is a definite no . But CPI-M , through their committed card-holder members , wanted to show the world that Mamta Bannerjee is a persona – non – grata in her own state .

They , forgetting their own blood-drenched past , are now shedding copious tears on national television after Sudipto Gupta’s death . I could feel a sense of glee in the hearts of comrades . Apparently Sitaram Yechuri was showing grief at the demise of SFI member but he seemed to be quite pleased that at least now they have got a stick to beat the formidable foe .

Their selective amnesia should be brought in the public view . Comrades are adept in annihilating their political opponents . They have killed thousands of RSS [ Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh ] workers in Kerala . They have brutally murdered their political opponents in West Bengal . Ask any CPI-M deserters . They will tell you the gruesome story . In the hinterlands of West Bengal , comrades used to hang a white sari in front of the house of the person , who voted or even participated in the political activities of opposition parties . White sari symbolised the impending widowhood to the wife of the deserter .

National media knows everything but they are myopic and inadvertently helping CPI-M . And shrewd comrades are exploiting the situation and enjoying the moment . They are shedding copious tears on the national television but in the privacy of their offices they must be having orgasm . At least no one can support West Bengal government of Mamata Banerjee on this point .

Death is sad . Death of a young man is shattering for the family . But may I ask why these comrades are on rampage since their defeat in West Bengal ? Why the comrades are not willing to wait for 5 years ? If their commitment for democracy is so unflinching , they should wait for the next general election . They should desist from unleashing their cadres on the streets and on police . When they were ruling West Bengal , it is alleged that they tried to annihilate Mamata Banerjee . They insulted her . They dragged her on the streets by catching hold of her hair . But a hypocrite like Sitaram Yetury , who is shedding tears now , was silent then . Even late Jyoti Basu , who is considered a BHADROLOK [ gentlemen ] by the media , remained a passive and silent onlooker like the mythological Dhritarashtra .

Jyoti Basu (8 July 1914 – 17 January 2010) or ...

Jyoti Basu (8 July 1914 – 17 January 2010) or Jyotirindra Basu was an Indian politician belonging to the Communist Party of India (Marxist) from West Bengal, India. He served as the Chief Minister of West Bengal from 1977 to 2000, making him the longest-serving Chief Minister of any Indian state. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I am not from Bengal . I can’t be accused of having any personal interest in the politics of Mamata Banerjee . I am not going to gain anything by supporting her and that too at this juncture . But I know the cunning comrades . I just felt that even at this juncture India and the discerning public should know the truth and they should not be swayed away by temporary and fluid situations and emotions . It would be fatal to play in the hands of comrades . These murderers are waiting for the opportunity and we should not do anything to help them . Their dream of ruling India is shattered . Their secret wish to paint India red lies in shambles . Any effort to demonize Mamata Banerjee would be like inviting the killers in our house .

A dream never fulfilled

A dream never fulfilled (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I feel for the family of the dead boy . I sympathise with the near and dear ones . But I refuse to criticize Mamata Banerjee for this death . Because I also remember the killings and annihilation of political opponents done by the communists of India .

Police claims that Sudipto Gupta died because of accident . Comrades are crying foul . You should remember ACP Dhoble of Mumbai police . He was accused of murdering a hawker in Mumbai and was subsequently transferred . Now it is known to all after enquiry that the hawker died of cardiac arrest . What if same case is repeated in Kolkata ? Think and think properly .

Famous acting schools of Mumbai , famous acting institutes of India and the famous acting academy of bollywood have no time for such topics . My acting institute  Vidur’s Kreating Charakters  think that apart from imparting acting training , it is also our duty to make our students aware of such happenings .

English: Flag of All India Trinamool Congress

Flag of All India Trinamool Congress (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Assembly election results map (by dis...

Assembly election results map (by district). Light green denotes the districts won by Mamata Banerjee’s Trinamool Congress, and Red denotes those won by the CPI(M). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Mamata Banerjee supporters

West Bengal needs Mamata Banerjee . In fact the nation needs her . And yes , we don’t need CPI-M or CPI at all . They should be consigned in the trash-bins of history .

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150 Years of Tagore


On May 09, 2010 as the world started celebrating 150 birth anniversary of Rabindra Nath Tagore, I started thinking about the Nobel prize winning author, who,among the writers, has influenced me most. Throughout the day, while unpacking my bags after my return from Dabra, a small town near Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, I kept on thinking about Rabindra Nath Tagore, his works and his legacy. Death is a very important and prominent feature in Tagore’s writings and death is the most intriguing part of my psyche. My feelings were compounded that day, as I was returning from the shraddha of my wife’s bhabhi.

I was introduced to the writings of Tagore in between 1965/1967. Rajpal & Sons, a very prominent and influential publishing house started a programme called Gharelu Library Yojana ( Domestic Library Scheme ). In this scheme they were publishing cheaper version of classics under the name of Hind Pocket Books. Abridged versions were priced Rs. 1.00 and un-abridged version were priced Rs. 2.00. This price tag seems impossible and implausible today. But it was a thriving scheme of its time. They published all the classics of Bengali literature and I became a member of this scheme. Kumudini ” ( “Yogayog” in Bengali ) is the first novel of Tagore which I read. It is my favourite till today. After this I read “ Geetanjali ”. On my first reading I couldn’t understand it fully. Then I read un-abridged version of his novel “ Gora ”. Again I was unable to understand it in totality. After this I started reading English translation of his short stories, named “ Hungry Stones & Other Stories”. To my astonishment, again I couldn’t understand a word of what he has written, but I couldn’t forget him also. It is paradoxical, but it is true. I was unable to solve this conundrum.

In 1969, when I started learning Bengali, I started pursuing Tagore religiously. One fine morning, while hearing Rabindra Sangeet, I was mesmerised. I started buying cassettes of Rabindra Sangeet and started listening it 24×7. After this when I re-read Geetanjali “, I was in trance. It was a devotee’s prayers and wish lists addressed to the God. The poems haunted me then and they still haunt and enchant me. Motivated by  Geetanjali “, I then started reading and re-reading all the novels, short stories and poems of Tagore. Among his novels, ” Kumudini ” ( Yogayog ) ,  ” Aankh Ki Kirkiri ” ( Chokher Bali), ” Nauka Dubi ” and Nashta Need “ are my favourites.

It is astonishing that Tagore wrote novels, short stories, plays and thousands of songs. He himself set tunes to his songs. It is called Rabindra Sangeet. He painted and is considered today as the father of modern Indian painting. He was the founder of a university  called Shantiniketan. It is amazing that he dabbled in so many fields, and that too so  successfully.

On his 150th birth anniversary I pay tribute to the only poet of India who won Nobel prize for literature.

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