100th Year of Formation of Bihar


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           AUGUST 08, 2012         01. 15 A.M.

This year in 2012 Bihar is celebrating 100 years of its existence as a province of India . Before 1912 Bihar was included in the erstwhile Bengal Presidency of British Indian Empire .

But Bihar’s history is much older that the British Indian Empire and even the rule of Afghans and Mughals .

Ancient Bihar (which consisted of Anga, Videha/Mithila, Magadha and Vajji/Vrijji) was a centre of power , learning and culture in ancient and classical India . From Magadha arose India’s first and greatest empire , the Maurya empire as well as one of the world’s most widely adhered-to religions , Buddhism . Magadha empires , notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties , unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule . Its capital Patna , earlier known as Pataliputra, was an important centre of Indian civilization . Nalanda and Vikramshila were centres of learning established in the 5th and 8th century respectively in Bihar , and are counted amongst the oldest and truly international universities , where people from all over the world came to study. Bihar has distinction of giving the world its first democracy through Lichchivi Ganarajya [ modern-day Vaishali district ] during ancient era . Though today , for some , Vaishali is more associated with Aamrapali , than with democracy . But for lovers of history , Vaishali will always be known as the epicentre of the FIRST PARLIAMENT OF THE WORLD .

I am posting few maps , which amply make clear the importance of Bihar and its significant contribution to the cultural ethos of India . From the mythological Magadh of Jarasandh and Anga of Karna of Mahabharata era , to the Maurya period and Chankya era and to the Golden Age of Guptas , Bihar has seen it all .

The approximate extent of the Magadha Empire i...

The approximate extent of the Magadha Empire in the 5th century BC. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The ‘16 Great Nations’; Anga is the easternmos...

The ‘16 Great Nations’; Anga is the easternmost, south of Vrijji and east of Magadha (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under ...

The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chandragupta's empire when he founded it c. 32...

Chandragupta’s empire when he founded it c. 320 BCE, by the time he was about 20 years old. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chandragupta Maurya's empire in 305 BC after h...

Chandragupta Maurya’s empire in 305 BC after his conflict with Seleucus Nicator. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Maurya Empire after Bindusara's death 269.

The Maurya Empire after Bindusara’s death 269. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Ashoka the Great subdued Kalinga, during the K...

Ashoka the Great subdued Kalinga, during the Kalinga War circa 265 BC, and the southern kingdoms. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: A map of the Maurya Dynasty, showing ...

English: A map of the Maurya Dynasty, showing major cities, early Buddhist sites, Ashokan Edicts, etc. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Appr...

Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Gupta Empire. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Patliputra as a capital of Sunga Empire. Appro...

Patliputra as a capital of Sunga Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga Empire (circa 185 BCE). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

After the end of this glorious and ancient chapter and after the end of not so significant Afghan and Mughal era , East India Company conquered large parts of northern India and became the de – facto rulers . After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Orissa , [ now Odisha ] . The rich resources of fertile land , water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists , particularly the Dutch and British , in the 18th century . Bihar remained a part the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912 , when the province of Bihar and Orissa [ now Odisha ] was carved out as a separate province . Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March . In 1935 , certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate province of Orissa [ now Odisha ] .

Map of United Bihar

Map of United Bihar

In 2000 , Bihar was divided into two and North part of undivided Bihar became Bihar and the Southern part was carved as a separate province and is now known as Jharkhand .

Bihar of Present Day

Bihar of Present Day

After partition , present day Bihar is the 12th largest state of India in terms of geographical size and 3rd largest in population . Apart from Hindi , Bihar is the home of some of the dialects of Hindi , like ; Bhojpuri , Magadhi , Maithili , Angika and Vajjika . For administrative purposes Bihar is divided into 9 divisions and 38 districts .

Location of Bihar in India

Location of Bihar in India

After independence and under the rule of Chief Ministers like ; Krishna Sinha and Anugrah Narayan Sinha , Bihar for some time , basked in the old glory of Patliputra . But it suffered a lot during the rule of Congress in later years . During the 15 year rule of Lalu Prasad Yadav and his wife Rabdi Devi , Bihar reached at its nadir . Lawlessness and anarchy ruled supreme . Day time murders became order of the day . Ransom became a respectable business . Reputation of Chankya’s Bihar and Chandragupta Maurya’s Patliputra was massacred and mutilated by RJD’s Lalu Prasad Yadav . It was further defaced and defiled by his inefficient wife Rabdi Devi .

After all the turmoil and tribulations , Bihar finally rejected RJD of Lalu and elected BJP , JD [ U ] combine in 2005 . Bihar is now marching ahead under the NDA rule . After Gujarat , now it is the second fastest growing state of India .

I am happy that in the centenary year of its existence , Bihar is shedding its infamous and nefarious image and gaining international respectability and appreciation . Bharatiya Janata Party and Janata Dal [ United ] combine deserve kudos for that . Though it is still miles behind of other states but definitely it is moving ahead and moving fast . May this centenary year be the golden year of Bihar .

I am happy because I have my roots in Bihar . My forefathers originally hailed from the state and only later on they migrated to Uttar Pradesh .

[ Some facts and figures of Bihar have been taken from Wikipedia . I express my gratitude . ]

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

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My Column ” Kal Aur Aaj ” in Bhojpuri City – [ 9 ]


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           MARCH 08 , 2012           01.15 A.M.

This is the 9th article of my Hindi column ” Kal Aur Aaj ” in Bhojpuri City . It is a Bhojpuri trade magazine being published from Mumbai every fortnight .

This article deals with the difficulties being  faced by the Bhojpuri film industry and the root causes of the Bhojpuri Film Industry‘s current woeful situation .

It is sad that Bhojpuri is spoken by almost 22 / 24 crore people living in various parts of the world still Bhojpuri film industry is yet to get its due respect .

 

English: Countries where Bhojpuri is spoken.

Countries Where Bhojpuri is Spoken

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My Column ” Kal Aur Aaj ” in Bhojpuri City – [ 8 ]


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           FEBRUARY 04 , 2012           00.15  A.M.

This is my 8th article for the fortnightly Hindi column , which I write in ” Bhojpuri City ” , a magazine being published from Mumbai .

This is a trade magazine , dedicated to the Bhojpuri film industry .

I was not able to write regularly but last time I promised to myself that I would be regular in future . So my 8th article comes close to my 7th article .

7th article came into the December 2nd issue of 2011 . 8th article is published in the latest , that is , February 1st issue of 2012 . There was one issue of January 2012 in between but the editor decided not to publish my article in that issue because of the crunch of space . So my promise to be regular stands fulfilled .

This article deals with the sad state of affair in the Bhojpuri film industry , which is plagued with mediocrity .

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MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

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My Column ” Kal Aur Aaj ” in Bhojpuri City – [ 7 ]


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           DECEMBER 29 , 2011           12.30 P.M.

This is the 7th article in Bhojpuri City , a fortnightly Bhojpuri trade magazine , which carries my column .

My 6th article was published in the September 1st issue of the said magazine . That was delayed by two and half months .

I promised that in future I would be regular . But again I went for the pilgrimage of South India and this article comes after almost three months . It’s definitely not a good sign for a budding columnist .

English: Political Map of South India, with ca...

Position of 5 South Indian States in The Map of India

This is  very short article about the topics on which current Bhojpuri films are being made . Films of various other Indian languages are moving ahead . They are experimenting with technique and format but Bhojpuri films are stuck in the same clichéd groove . This article concentrates on that .

I promise that I would be regular in future . If a fortnightly column come after 2 / 3 months , it definitely diminishes the purpose . There are various Bhojpuri speaking nations in the world . Bhojpuri speaking people are almost 24 crores in numbers . Through this column I want to reach Bhojpuri speaking diaspora . So I have to be regular .

English: Countries where Bhojpuri is spoken.

Map of Bhojpuri Speaking Nations

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9 Newcomers of ” Aber ” , My Bhojpuri Film


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA              APRIL 25, 2011               07.15 P. M.

While preparing for the pre – production of ” ABER ” , my Bhojpuri film , I laid down few rules for myself.

1 – I decided that my actors should be genuine struggling actors and not some wannabes, who are well settled in their respective lives and have this everlasting wishful thinking of becoming actors.

2 – I decided that I would give work to the maximum number of my students. And why not ? If I am imparting training and churning out vast number of talented artistes, why should I rummage through the trash bins of some other trainers and sign their discarded and defective museum pieces for my films?

3 – I also decided that I would give chance to maximum numbers of newcomers. Generally people do not understand the process of film – making. They feel that only talent counts. Outsider’s opinion of film industry is based on sweet dreams and some fallacies. Film – making depends on the will and power of financiers and distributors. You wont get money for a non – star cast film. And finally even if you get the money and any how complete the film , you wont be able to sell it to the distributors. So casting newcomers was the most difficult decision, which I took. Though I was adamant and today I am satisfied that there are 9 new comers in ” Aber ” , my Bhojpuri film. I did talk to Rani Chatterjee , Viraj Bhatt , Swati Varma and Aksshey Varma for my film, because they are big stars and I can sell my film on their name. But here also I fulfilled my first commitment. Swati and Aksshey are my students. So out of 4 stablished stars , 2 are my students. And out of  9  new comers , 7 are my students and remaining 2 are new comers but not my students.

1 – Ashutosh Singh : He is the music director of my film and has done just one film. But that film is not released yet. Apart from that film he has not done anything. And since the film he has done is yet to get released , he is as new and fresh as any new comer. Needless to say that he has done fantastic job.

Ashutosh Singh

Ashutosh Singh

2 – PRIYA SHARMA : She is the romantic lead of my film and she has not done any film as main lead. She has worked as second lead in a film but it is yet to get released.

3 – PRIYAMVADA PANDEY : She has done a serial for Mahua channel but not a film. After Rani Chatterjee and Swati Varma, who are big stars in Bhojpuri film industry, she is playing the most important character in the film and it was a big and risky decision as per the norm of film industry. But I am firm on my decision and have confidence that she will always be known and shall always be remembered for this role.

She is our student and was in Batch No. 27 of KEATING CHARAKTERS.

Priyamvada Pandey

 4 – PRIYA JOSHI : She is a Marathi girl and has not done any thing either in Hindi or in Marathi. Her role is smaller compared to all the above mentioned female characters but this role is catalyst and it is the pivotal role of the movie. When I informed her about my decision, she went into disbelief. At that time her batch was yet to be completed and even her batch-mates thought that I am not serious. But I had seen the sparks and was adamant  that only she could essay the role.

She is our student and was in the Batch No. 46 of KREATING CHARAKTERS.

Priya Joshi

5 – Sandip Yadav : Again a rank new comer , he has done nothing ; neither stage , nor TV or film. He is from Uttar Pradesh and basically a Bhojpuri speaking person.

He is our student and was in the Batch No. 41 of KREATING CHARAKTERS.

Sandip Yadav

Sandip Yadav

6 – Rajnish Gore : Like Sandip , he is also a rank new comer. Totally without experience, he has done nothing. He is Bhojpuri speaking boy .

He is our student and was in the Batch No. 38 of KREATING CHARAKTERS .

Rajnish Gore

Rajnish Gore

7 – Riddhi Bansal : He is very old student of mine and is basically a dubbing artiste. He is from Rajasthan and is playing a police officer in the film. He has done just one film , which has not been released yet.

Riddhi Bansal

Riddhi Bansal

8 – RATAN LAL : He is from Ranchi , Jharkhand and he is a black belt holder. He has done few episode of a serial ” Left Right Left “. Apart from that he has done one Bhojpuri film, which is yet to be released. In my film he is playing the role of a Marine commando.

He is working at KREATING CHARAKTERS as action trainer.

Ratan Lal

9 – Raunak Chaturvedi : He is my son and student too. He has done acting workshop with Nadira Zaheer Babbar. After completing that workshop, he started learning dance from Krishna Sir and is still doing that. Earlier he was with Shiamak Davar’s academy also.

Before admitting him in KREATING CHARAKTERS,  I advised him to work as assistant director so that he should know all the aspects of film making. He has assisted 4 directors. He started with clap boy and graduated to become the 1st assistant director. His last job as assistant was for ” Daddy Cool ” , a Inder Kumar film.

He is our student and was in the Batch No. 46 of KREATING CHARAKTERS.

Raunak Chaturvedi

Raunak Chaturvedi


Poster of " Aber " - A Bhojpuri Film With Difference

Poster of " Aber " - A Bhojpuri Film With Difference

1st Publicity Design of " Aber "

1st Publicity Design of " Aber "

2nd Publicity Design of " Aber "

2nd Publicity Design of " Aber "

3rd Publicity Design of " Aber "

3rd Publicity Design of " Aber "

VIDUR

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Wilting Traditions – 1 : Holi & Hindi Cinema


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           MARCH 26, 2011                   12. 2O A.M.

We just celebrated Holi. Indian festivals, specially North Indian festivals always played major roles in the Hindi films of yesteryears. Once upon a time Holi , Deewali , Makar Sankranti and  Raksha Bandhan used to be part of the story and were filmed lavishly and portrayed prominently in Hindi films. There used to be hit songs in films celebrating these festivals. And they are still remembered.

When I started watching films, I vividly remember Mehboob Khan‘s films , where Holi was always a part of the story and he used to picturize it lavishly. His first colour film ” Aan ” [ 1951 ] had a memorable Holi song – khelo rang hamare sang aaj din rang rangeela aaya…………..It was filmed on Dilip Kumar , Nimmi and large number of junior artistes.

Mother India

Image via Wikipedia

Mehboob Khan’s another timeless classic in colour was Mother India ” [ 1957 ] . It had immensely popular Holi number – holi aayi re kanhayee rang chhalke suna de jara bansuri………It was filmed on Nargis , Sunil Dutt , Rajendra Kumar , Kumkum and large number of junior artistes. Its canvass was vast and it carried the story forward with the help of intercuts and flash-backs . This song is my personal favourite. Mehboob Khan had earlier made ” Mother India ” in Black & white as ” Aurat ” [ 1940 ] and it too had Holi number filmed on Sardar Akhtar , Surendra and Yakub. Incidently ” Aurat “ also had an artiste named Arun [ father of present day star Govinda ]. So in total Mehboob Khan had 3 memorable Holi songs to his credit in classic films like – ” Aurat ” , ” Aan ” and ” Mother India. ”

After Mehboob Khan’s ” Aan ” [ 1951 ] , Dilip Kumar had another memorable Holi number picturized on him in S. U. Sunny’s ” Kohinoor” [ 196 0 ] . It was – man rang lo ji aaj tan rang lo , khelo umang bhar rang pyar ke le lo…………….During his later years Dilip Kumar did a film Mashaal ”  [ 1984 ] for Yash Chopra and it too had a hit and lovely Holi number – o dekho holi aayi ………….

Cover of

Cover of Mashaal

It is noteworthy that all the above mentioned numbers were composed by Naushad and were written by Shakeel Badayuni. Only ” Aurat ” and ” Mashaal “ numbers are exceptions. ” Aurat ” Holi number was composed by Anil Biswas and ” Mashaal “ was composed by Hriday Nath Mangeshkar and was written by Anand Bakshi.

After Mehboob Khan , Dilip Kumar , Naushad and Shakeel Badayuni another filmmaker who filmed magnificient Holi scenes and songs , was veteran V. Shantaram. His ” Navrang ” [ 1959 ] had a wonderful Holi number – arre ja re arre natkhat………………..

Among the yesteryear filmmakers , strangely , Raj Kapoor never filmed a single Holi song or scene in his directorial ventures. Though in real life , his larger than life Holi celebrations were talk of the film industry and are still envied and remembered by many.

Another curious case is Dev Anand’s. His suave and urbane personality was not fit for such kind of rustic and robust celebrations but he has one memorable exception. His immortal film ” Guide ” [ 1965 ] had a popular dance number – piya tose naina lage re , naina lage re…………….In this particular song there was one para dedicated to Holi. It was – aayi holi aayi , sab rang layi , bin tere holi bhi na bhaye………………….. Though Dev Anand was not shown in the song . It was magnificently picturized on Waheeda Rehman by director Vijay Anand. It was composed by Sachin Dev Burman and was written by Shailendra.

After above mentioned artistes and specially after Dilip Kumar , Amitabh Bachchan had most number of memorable Holi songs to his credit. His immortal classic ” Sisila ” [ 1981 ] had a song – rang barse bheege chunar wali rang barse ………… It is a cult song even today. One of his recent hits ” Baghbaan ” [ 2003 ] had another memorable number – holi khelen raghubeera awadh men holi khelen raghubeera……… .. According to me , Amitabh Bachchan has the dubious distinction of having one of the worst Holi number in the history of Hindi cinema to his credit. His later year hit ” Waqt – Race Against Time ” [ 2005 ] had a number composed by Anu Malik – do me a favour lets play holi……………….. Unfortunately this worst Holi song  is the last Holi number in Hindi films till date.

Yash Chopra , director of ” Silsila ” [ 1981 ] , is the second filmmaker after Mehboob Khan , who has filmed large number of memorable Holi songs in his films. After ” Silsila ” [ 1981 ] , he picturized a melodious Holi song on Dilip Kumar , Anil Kapoor and Waheeda Rehman in ” Mashaal ” [ 1984 ]. The song was – o dekho holi aayi……………..After ” Mashaal “ he made ” Lamhe ” [ 1991 ] and once again gave us a hit song – mohe chhedo na……………His another classic ” Darr ” [ 1993 ] had another lovely song – ang se ang lagaana sajan mohe aise rang lagaana………………….It was picturized on Shah Rukh Khan , Sunny Deol and Juhi Chawla. So Yash Chopra has 4 Holi songs to his credit , while Mehboob Khan has 3.

In between Dilip Kumar and Amitabh Bachchan , for a brief period of time , Rajesh Khanna was the reigning deity. His one of the early successes ” Kati Patang ” [ 1970 ] had a memorable Holi number – aaj na chhodenge bas hamjoli……………It was composed by Rahul Dev Burman and was written by Anand Bakshi. Incidently same composer – lyricist duo gave us another Holi chart-buster in ” Sholay ” [ 1975 ]. It was – holi ke din dil khil jaate hain…………..Though ” Sholay “ was made in the tradition of western cowboy films but it’s Holi song was so wonderfully woven in the story and it was filmed so beautifully that it is remembered even today .

Among today’s stars Aamir Khan had a wonderful song in ” Mangal Pandey  – The Rising [ 2005 ] . It is – dekho aayi holi………….. It is quirk of the matter that worst Holi song of Hindi films , do me a favour , lets play holi……… also came in the same year [ 2005 ] in ” Waqt – Race Against Time ” .

Mangal Pandey: The Rising

Image via Wikipedia

There are some other films also which have some good Holi songs . Rajshri Productions massive hit ” Nadiya Ke Paar ” [ 1982 ] had a catchy number – jogi ji wah jogi ji…………. but it was an exception rather than a rule. After 2005, it is sad that all the recent released films have not portrayed Holi or any other festivals prominently. There are several causes for this scenario.

A – Delhi – UP has ceased to be a prominent territory for Hindi films. Now younger filmmakers make films for metropolitan cities and for overseas markets. So this rustic , robust festival of colours is not finding favours.

B – Younger filmmakers are not familiar with the hinterlands of our country. They seldom go to villages and are unaware of the circumstances of our middle and lower middle class population.

C – Story line of recent films have become city – centric. Rampaging consumerism has changed the scenario beyond recognition and this is being reflected in the recently released films.

D – Rise of television is another root cause for this change. Since films are being made for the overseas territories and for metropolitan centers, so various channels started catering to the rural masses and started beaming village – centric serials. So filmmakers are now not bothered for the masses of hinterlands.

E – Rise of Bhojpuri films are another nail in the coffin. These films specially cater to North Indian public and most of them are still village – centric . So they picturize Holi songs on lavish scale . Recently released hit Bhojpuri film ” Diljale ” [ 2011 ] has a memorable Holi song.

There might be other reasons too, but I am sad that slowly and firmly our festival of colours is coming to a virtual neglect in Hindi films.

It is sad , very sad !

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Bhojpuri Language – 2 [ People , Literature & Script ]


Bhojpuri People

The Bhojpuri-speaking region, due to its rich tradition of creating leaders for building post-independence India such as first President Dr. Rajendra Prasad followed by many eminent politicians and humanitarians like Dr. Krishna Dev Upadhyaya, was never devoid of intellectual prominence which is evident in its literature. Apart from our first President Rajendra Prasad, two of our Prime Ministers : Lal Bahadur Shastri and Chandrashekhar, were also basically Bhojpuri speaking persons. Father of Total Revolution and eminent Socialist Lok Nayak Jay Prakash Narayan was a Bhojpuri speaking person too.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad, 1st President of India.

Image via Wikipedia - Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Lal Bahadur Shastri

Image via Wikipedia - Lal Bahadur Shastri

Bhojpuri literature

 

Bharatendu Harishchandra (1850-1885) Issued by...

Image via Wikipedia - Bharatendu Harishchandra

Bhojpuri became one of the basis of the development of the official language of independent IndiaHindi, in the past century. Bhartendu Harishchandra, who is considered the father of literary Hindi, was greatly influenced by the tone and style of Bhojpuri in his native region. Further development of Hindi was taken by prominent laureates such as Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi and Munshi Premchand from the Bhojpuri-speaking region. Bhikhari Thakur, known as the Shakespeare of Bhojpuri, has also given theater plays including the classics of Bidesiya. Pioneer Dr. Krishna Dev Upadhyaya from Ballia district devoted 60 years to researching and cataloging Bhojpuri folklore. Dr. H. S. Upadhyaya wrote the book Relationships of Hindu family as depicted in Bhojpuri folksongs (1996). Together they have cataloged thousands of Bhojpuri folksongs, riddles and proverbs from the Purvanchal U.P, Bihar, Jharkand and Chotta Nagpuri districts near Bengal.

Premchand

Image via Wikipedia - Munshi Premchand

The Bhojpuri literature has always remained contemporary. It was more of a body of folklore with folk music and poems prevailing. Literature in the written form started in the early 20th century. During the British era, then known as the “Northern Frontier Province language”, Bhojpuri adopted a patriotic tone and after independence it turned to community. In later periods, following the low economic development of the Bhojpuri-speaking region, the literary work is more skewed towards the human sentiments and struggles of life.

A recent publication (2009) ‘Bhojpuri-Lok Sahitya: Lok Geeton Ki Samajik Sanskritik Sandarbh Evam Prishthbhumi” (Bhojpuri Folk Literature: Social and Cultural Landscape of Folk Songs) by Dr. Dharmveer Singh (Publisher: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhavan, P.O. Box 1160, Chowk, Varanasi-221001, India) contains an exhaustive research on the historical and social background of the origin and temporal development of this language in greatest detail. This book is exhaustive in its approach and is a gem for anyone who is interested in Bhojpuri as a language. The most impressive aspect of the book is the collection of folk-songs that the author has gleaned from various sources. With the advent of modern technology and effect of cinema, these folk-songs are becoming extinct. This book preserves not only the songs in a written form but also provides the context in which they should be viewed and appreciated.

  • Bhojpuri Writers – Viveki Rai Is a famous Bhojpuri writer. Bhikhari Thakur, Mahender Misir and Moti B. A. are other notable dramatists and poets. Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan also wrote some books in Bhojpuri.

Writing scripts

Bhojpuri over the course of time has been written in various scripts by various people. Bhojpuri until late 19th century was commonly written in Kaithi script as well as Nasta’liq (Persian) script.

Mention of Bhojpuri literature cannot be complete without Bhikhari Thakur and his immemorial Bidesia. However, it is unfortunate that no conscious attempt is being made to preserve his literature which is mainly in various folklore.

A recent publication ‘Bhojpuri – Lok Sahitya: Lok Geeton Ki Samajik Sanskritik Sandarbh Evam Prishthbhumi” (Bhojpuri Folk Literature: Social and Cultural Landscape of Folk Songs) by Dr. Dharmveer Singh (Publisher: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhavan, P.O. Box 1160, Chowk, Varanasi-221001, India) contains an exhaustive research on the historical and social background of the origin and temporal development of this language in greatest detail. This book is exhaustive in its approach and is a gem for anyone who is interested in Bhojpuri as a language. The most impressive aspect of the book is the collection of folk-songs that the author has gleaned from various sources. With the advent of modern technology and effect of cinema, these folk-songs are becoming extinct. This book preserves not only the songs in a written form but also provides the context in which they should be viewed and appreciated.

Kaithi

Kaithi script was used for administrative purposes in the Mughal era for writing Bhojpuri, Maithili, Bangla, Urdu, Magahi and Hindi from at least 16th century up to the first decade of 20th century. Government gazetteers report that Kaithi was used in a few districts of Bihar through the1960s.It is possible that Kaithi is still used today in very limited capacity in these districts and in rural areas of north India. The significance of Kaithi grew when the British governments of the Bengal Presidency (of which Bihar and some southern districts of Nepal was territory) and the NorthWestern Provinces & Oudh (hereafter, NWP&O) selected the script for use in administration and education. The first impetus of growth was the standardization of written Kaithi in 1875 by the government of NWP&O for the purpose of adapting the script for use in formal education. The second was the selection of Kaithi by the government of Bihar as the official script of the courts and administrative offices of the Bihar districts in1880.Thereafter; Kaithi replaced the Persian script as the writing system of record in the judicial courts of Bihar. Additionally, on account of the rate of literacy in Kaithi, the governments of Bihar and NWP&O advocated Kaithi as the medium of written instruction in their primary schools.

 

[ Bhojpuri story written in Kaithi script, written by Babu Rama Smaran Lal in 1898 ]

Nasta’liq (Persian)

Before 1880 all the administrative works in Bihar was done in this Persian script and possibly all the educated Muslims in the Bhojpuri speaking region wrote unofficial works in Nasta’liq script.

 

[ A letter written to the civil court in Patna in Nasta’liq script in 1825 ]

Devanagari

By 1894, official works were carried out in both Kaithi and Devanagari in Bihar which probably started giving way to replacement of Kaithi completely by Devanagari. At present almost all the Bhojpuri works are done in Devanagari even in the overseas islands where Bhojpuri is spoken.

Bhojpuri Media

  • In Bhojpuri many magazine and papers published from U P, Bihar West Bengal & Assam. The Sunday Indian, Bhojpuri is world’s only regular National News Magazine in Bhojpuri published by Planman Media, owned by Prof. Arindam Chaudhary and Edited by Onkareshwar Pandey. Sanesh this is a first quarterly magazine from north east Guwahati. Bhojpuri Lok Lucknow
  • Mahuaa TV and Hamar TV are the Bhojpuri Channel.
  • Bhojpuri Cinema news and movies trailers and release is available on http://www.bhojpuriyacinema.com

[ Like my previous blog about Bhojpuri Language, this one is also not my original writing. Major portions of this blog are taken from various sources on the internet. I am indebted and express my gratitude. This copy-paste was done for the readers , who are not net-savvy but they want to know about Bhojpuri Language and also for the future reference of myself. ]

Vidur

Mumbai – Maharashtra – India

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

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