100th Year of Formation of Bihar


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           AUGUST 08, 2012         01. 15 A.M.

This year in 2012 Bihar is celebrating 100 years of its existence as a province of India . Before 1912 Bihar was included in the erstwhile Bengal Presidency of British Indian Empire .

But Bihar’s history is much older that the British Indian Empire and even the rule of Afghans and Mughals .

Ancient Bihar (which consisted of Anga, Videha/Mithila, Magadha and Vajji/Vrijji) was a centre of power , learning and culture in ancient and classical India . From Magadha arose India’s first and greatest empire , the Maurya empire as well as one of the world’s most widely adhered-to religions , Buddhism . Magadha empires , notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties , unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule . Its capital Patna , earlier known as Pataliputra, was an important centre of Indian civilization . Nalanda and Vikramshila were centres of learning established in the 5th and 8th century respectively in Bihar , and are counted amongst the oldest and truly international universities , where people from all over the world came to study. Bihar has distinction of giving the world its first democracy through Lichchivi Ganarajya [ modern-day Vaishali district ] during ancient era . Though today , for some , Vaishali is more associated with Aamrapali , than with democracy . But for lovers of history , Vaishali will always be known as the epicentre of the FIRST PARLIAMENT OF THE WORLD .

I am posting few maps , which amply make clear the importance of Bihar and its significant contribution to the cultural ethos of India . From the mythological Magadh of Jarasandh and Anga of Karna of Mahabharata era , to the Maurya period and Chankya era and to the Golden Age of Guptas , Bihar has seen it all .

The approximate extent of the Magadha Empire i...

The approximate extent of the Magadha Empire in the 5th century BC. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The ‘16 Great Nations’; Anga is the easternmos...

The ‘16 Great Nations’; Anga is the easternmost, south of Vrijji and east of Magadha (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under ...

The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chandragupta's empire when he founded it c. 32...

Chandragupta’s empire when he founded it c. 320 BCE, by the time he was about 20 years old. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chandragupta Maurya's empire in 305 BC after h...

Chandragupta Maurya’s empire in 305 BC after his conflict with Seleucus Nicator. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Maurya Empire after Bindusara's death 269.

The Maurya Empire after Bindusara’s death 269. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Ashoka the Great subdued Kalinga, during the K...

Ashoka the Great subdued Kalinga, during the Kalinga War circa 265 BC, and the southern kingdoms. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: A map of the Maurya Dynasty, showing ...

English: A map of the Maurya Dynasty, showing major cities, early Buddhist sites, Ashokan Edicts, etc. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Appr...

Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Gupta Empire. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Patliputra as a capital of Sunga Empire. Appro...

Patliputra as a capital of Sunga Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga Empire (circa 185 BCE). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

After the end of this glorious and ancient chapter and after the end of not so significant Afghan and Mughal era , East India Company conquered large parts of northern India and became the de – facto rulers . After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Orissa , [ now Odisha ] . The rich resources of fertile land , water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists , particularly the Dutch and British , in the 18th century . Bihar remained a part the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912 , when the province of Bihar and Orissa [ now Odisha ] was carved out as a separate province . Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March . In 1935 , certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate province of Orissa [ now Odisha ] .

Map of United Bihar

Map of United Bihar

In 2000 , Bihar was divided into two and North part of undivided Bihar became Bihar and the Southern part was carved as a separate province and is now known as Jharkhand .

Bihar of Present Day

Bihar of Present Day

After partition , present day Bihar is the 12th largest state of India in terms of geographical size and 3rd largest in population . Apart from Hindi , Bihar is the home of some of the dialects of Hindi , like ; Bhojpuri , Magadhi , Maithili , Angika and Vajjika . For administrative purposes Bihar is divided into 9 divisions and 38 districts .

Location of Bihar in India

Location of Bihar in India

After independence and under the rule of Chief Ministers like ; Krishna Sinha and Anugrah Narayan Sinha , Bihar for some time , basked in the old glory of Patliputra . But it suffered a lot during the rule of Congress in later years . During the 15 year rule of Lalu Prasad Yadav and his wife Rabdi Devi , Bihar reached at its nadir . Lawlessness and anarchy ruled supreme . Day time murders became order of the day . Ransom became a respectable business . Reputation of Chankya’s Bihar and Chandragupta Maurya’s Patliputra was massacred and mutilated by RJD’s Lalu Prasad Yadav . It was further defaced and defiled by his inefficient wife Rabdi Devi .

After all the turmoil and tribulations , Bihar finally rejected RJD of Lalu and elected BJP , JD [ U ] combine in 2005 . Bihar is now marching ahead under the NDA rule . After Gujarat , now it is the second fastest growing state of India .

I am happy that in the centenary year of its existence , Bihar is shedding its infamous and nefarious image and gaining international respectability and appreciation . Bharatiya Janata Party and Janata Dal [ United ] combine deserve kudos for that . Though it is still miles behind of other states but definitely it is moving ahead and moving fast . May this centenary year be the golden year of Bihar .

I am happy because I have my roots in Bihar . My forefathers originally hailed from the state and only later on they migrated to Uttar Pradesh .

[ Some facts and figures of Bihar have been taken from Wikipedia . I express my gratitude . ]

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

Jasmine Revolution in Burma [ Myanmar ]


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JANUARY 21, 2012           01.00 A.M.

2011 will be known in the world history as the year of Jasmine Revolutions . It started with Tunisia .The despotic ruler of Tunisia , Zine El Abidine Ben Ali was forced to quit his post after 24 years of tyrannical rule .

Zine El Abidine Ben Ali of Tunisia

Egypt was the second nation to be engulfed by the Jasmine Revolution . After having an iron grip on Egypt for 30 long years , Hosni Mubarak was thrown out of power by the rampaging masses .

Hosni Mubarak of Egypt

Soon the revolution reached at the door – step of Muammar al – Gaddafi . After fierce resistance of few months , Gaddafi was thrown out of power and was subsequently killed . His despotic and tyrannical rule lasted for 42 long years .

Muammar al - Gaddafi of Libya

Soon after Libya , Jasmine Revolution reached at the doors of other despotic rulers of Syria , Yemen and China . Syria’s Bashar al – Assad is currently facing the brunt of the masses . 10 years of Bashar al – Assad and 30 years of his father Hafez al – Assad‘s rule is now deeply resented .

Bashar al - Assad of Syria

Yemen is another country , ruled by a totalitarian ruler , Ali Abdullah Saleh. His 21 year – old rule is going to end soon . Jasmine Revolution is furiously knocking at his door .

Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen

At present China is trying to control the Jasmine Revolution . But the question remains , will she be able to check the marching footsteps of the disgruntled masses ?

It is very surprising that in the last quarter of 2011 , Burma [ Also Known as Myanmar ] got rid of  the military rule of 49 years , but the world is slow to react to the new reality . Many in India don’t know much about our eastern neighbour .

Than Shwe , The Military Ruler of Burma

To know about Burma , we should look at the map of British Indian Empire . Map of British India is very interesting . In comprises present day India , Pakistan , Bangladesh , Burma [ Present Day Myanmar ] and Ceylon [ Present Day Sri Lanka ] . People know that West Pakistan [ Now Pakistan ] and East Pakistan [ Now Bangladesh ] were part of India before 1947 . But today’s generation do not know that Burma [ Now Myanmar ] , and Ceylon [ Now Sri Lanka ] , were also part of British Indian Empire .

English: Map of the British Indian Empire from...

IMap of British Indian Empire

1864 Johnson's Map of India (Hindostan or Brit...

Map of British India

At the time of Independence of India in 1947 , British rulers divided the Indian Empire into 4 free and sovereign states . India , Pakistan , Burma and Ceylon became 4 independent states .

Britain's holdings on the Indian subcontinent ...

Proposed Divisions of British Indian Empire

India and Pakistan became two independent states in 1947 . Burma became independent on January 04 , 1948 . Burma is the 40th largest country in the world and 2nd largest country in South East Asia . Burma is also the 24th most populous country in the world .

Political Map of Burma

Locator map showing India and Burma

Location Map Showing India & Burma

After independence in 1948 , Burma was a democratic country for 14 years but unfortunately , on March 02 , 1962 military ousted civilian rulers in a coup . Military junta ruled Burma till 2011 . Then junta was dissolved and a civilian government was installed again .

The 14 states and regions of Burma

14 Provinces of Burma

During it’s 49 year rule military junta changed many things in Burma . The name of country was changed to Myanmar . Though it is not recognised by the world community and the majority population of Burma . Name of the capital Rangoon was also changed to Yangon . Later on capital was shifted to Naypyidaw in Mandalay province .

Aung San Suu Kyi

After 15 years of detention , Burma’s pro – democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi was released on November 13 , 2010 . In October 2011 many political prisoners were freed and trade unions were legalised . Jasmine revolution seems to be booming in Burma and the country is on the verge of democratic rule .

I have a childhood fascination for Burma . My maternal grand-uncle and maternal grand-aunt lived in Rangoon , Burma during 2nd World War . They used to tell many thrilling stories about Burma . Their stay in Rangoon was also full of very interesting anecdotes . Whenever I used to visit their place along with my mother , I used to sit with them and used to hear their stories of Burma . Now I know that many stories were fabricated but they kindled my fascination about Rangoon and Burma and my childhood fascination still continues .

When I started my studies , I read about Bahadur Shah Zafar and about his imprisonment and his subsequent death in Rangoon . Then I read about Lokmanya Tilak’s infamous jail term and 6 years [ 1908 – 1914 ] that he spent in Mandalay jail . My relationship with Burma was fortified in my mind .

A Hindi film song of ” Patanga ” [ 1949 ] also helped to build up the Burmese fascination . The song MERE PIYA GAYE RANGOON ; WAHAN SE KIYA HAI TELEPHONE , TUMHARI YAAD SATATI HAI …….. still reverbarates in the corridors of my sub – conscious . I haven’t seen this Shyam , Nigar Sultana , Yakub , Gope and Cuckoo starrer , which was directed by H. S. Rawail . But whenever I used to hear C. Ramchandra’s immortal song , specially its lines ; TUM BURMA KI GALIYON ME HO , AUR PHIROON MAIN DEHRADUN ………. TUMHARI YAD SATATI HAI …… I used to feel that I am also roaming in the lanes and by – lanes of Rangoon and Burma .

Another Hindi film ” Burmah Road ” [ 1962 ] again inflamed my imagination about Burma . This Ashok Kumar and Kumkum starrer film was forgettable but a song DAGHABAZ HO , BANKE PIYA KAHO NA , DAGHABAZ HO ……. is still fresh in my memory . Lata Mangeshkar’s voice made this song immortal and Majrooh Sultanpuri’s lyrics were set to tune by Chitragupta .

Since the country is on the road to democracy , I hope to visit Burma one day and would love to roam around in the lanes and by – lanes of Rangoon . May be this will happen soon , may be very soon .or may be in far distant future . I would love to visit Burma , visit Rangoon and would love to meet Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi .

Long live Aung San Suu Kyi !!!

Aung San Suu Kyi

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

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