100 Years of Our National Anthem : Jana Gana Mana ….


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           DECEMBER 29 , 2011           02.25 A.M.

Portrait of Bharat Mata

On December 27 , 2011 , our National Anthem completed 100 years . Written by Rabindra Nath Tagore in Bengali , it was first sung on December 27 . 1911 in the Calcutta [ Now Kolkata ] session of Indian National Congress . The building , where plenary session of Congress was held is called Bharat Sabha . It is on Bowbazar Street . That building still stands and is the silent reminder of that historical event .

Bharat Sabha on Bowbazar Street , Where Jana Gana Mana Was First Sung

Rabindranath Tagore won the Nobel prize for li...

Rabindra Nath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore wrote 5 stanzas of the song , which is basically a Brahmo Hymn . Only the first stanza was adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem on January 24 , 1950 . Here I am giving all the 5 stanzas along with the English translation done by Rabindranath Tagore himself .

Rabindranath Tagore at His Writing Desk

[ 1 ] = Jano Gano Mano Adhinaayako Jayo Hey,Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Panjaabo Sindhu Gujaraato Maraathaa,Draabiro Utkalo Bango
Bindhyo Himaachalo Jamunaa Gangaa, Uchchhalo Jalodhi Tarango
Tabo Shubho Naamey Jaagey, Tabo Shubho Aashisho Maagey
Gaahey Tabo Jayogaathaa
Jano Gano Mangalo Daayako, Jayo Hey Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey,Jayo Jayo Jayo, Jayo Hey

[ Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,Dispenser of India‘s destiny,
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat & Maratha,of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal,
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges,
And is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea. They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise,
The saving of all people waits in thy hands,
Thou dispenser of India’s destiny,
Victory, Victory, Victory to thee. ]

[ 2 ] = Ohoroho Tobo Aahbaano Prachaarito,Shuni Tabo Udaaro Baani

Hindu Bauddho Shikho Jaino,Parashiko Musholmaano Christaani

Purabo Pashchimo Aashey,Tabo Singhaasano Paashey
Premohaaro Hawye Gaanthaa
Jano Gano Oikyo Bidhaayako Jayo Hey,Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey,Jayo Jayo Jayo, Jayo Hey

[ Day and night, thy voice goes out from land to land,
calling the Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains round thy throne and the Parsees, Mussalmans and Christians.
Offerings are brought to thy shrine by the East and the West
To be woven in a garland of love.
Thou bringeth the hearts of all people into the harmony of one life,Thou Dispenser of India’s destiny,
Victory, Victory, Victory to thee.” ]

[ 3 ] = Potono Abhbhudoy Bandhuro Ponthaa,Jugo Jugo Dhaabito Jaatri
Hey Chiro Saarothi, Tabo Ratha Chakrey Mukhorito Potho Dino Raatri
Daaruno Biplabo Maajhey,Tabo Shankhodhwoni Bajey
Sankato Dukkho Traataa
Jano Gano Potho Parichaayako,Jayo Hey Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey,Jayo Jayo Jayo, Jayo Hey

[ The procession of pilgrims passes over the endless road, rugged with the rise and fall of nations;
and it resounds with the thunder of thy wheel.Eternal Charioteer!
Through the dire days of doom thy trumpet sounds, and men are led by thee across death.
Thy finger points the path to all people.
Oh dispenser of India’s destiny!
Victory, victory, victory to thee. ]

[ 4 ] = Ghoro Timiro Ghono Nibiro,Nishithey Peerito Murchhito Deshey

Jagrato Chhilo Tabo Abicholo Mangalo,Noto Nayoney Animeshey
Duhswapney Aatankey,Rokkhaa Koriley Ankey
Snehamoyi Tumi Maataaa
Jano Gano Duhkho Trayako,Jayo Hey Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey,Jayo Jayo Jayo, Jayo Hey

[ The darkness was dense and deep was the night; my country lay in a deathlike silence of swoon.
 But thy mother arms were round her and thine eyes gazed upon her troubled face
in sleepless love through her hours of ghastly dreams.
Thou art the companion and the saviour of the people in their sorrows,
thou dispenser of India’s destiny!
Victory, victory, victory to thee. ]

[ 5 ] = Raatri Prabhatilo Udilo Rabichhabi, Purbo Udayo Giri Bhaaley
Gaahey Bihangamo Punyo Samirano, Nabo Jibano Rasho Dhaley
Tabo Karunaaruno Ragey,Nidrito Bhaarato Jagey
Tabo Chorone Noto Maatha
Jayo Jayo Jayo Hey, Jayo Rajeshwaro, Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey,Jayo Jayo Jayo, Jayo Hey

[ The night fades;the light breaks over the peaks of the Eastern hills,
the birds begin to sing and the morning breeze carries the breath of new life.
The rays of the mercy have touched the waking land with their blessings.
Victory to the King of Kings,
victory to thee, dispenser of India’s destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee. ]

Rabindranath Tagore at His Writing Desk

Music Notes of Jana Gana Mana

I am giving all the 5 stanzas of Jana Gana Mana ….. in Bengali script .

জনগণমন-অধিনায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
পঞ্জাব সিন্ধু গুজরাট মরাঠা দ্রাবিড় উৎকল বঙ্গ
বিন্ধ্য হিমাচল যমুনা গঙ্গা উচ্ছলজলধিতরঙ্গ
তব শুভ নামে জাগে,        তব শুভ আশিষ মাগে,
গাহে তব জয়গাথা।
জনগণমঙ্গলদায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

অহরহ তব আহ্বান প্রচারিত, শুনি তব উদার বাণী
হিন্দু বৌদ্ধ শিখ জৈন পারসিক মুসলমান খৃস্টানী
পূরব পশ্চিম আসে       তব সিংহাসন-পাশে
প্রেমহার হয় গাঁথা।
জনগণ-ঐক্য-বিধায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

পতন-অভ্যুদয়-বন্ধুর পন্থা, যুগ যুগ ধাবিত যাত্রী।
হে চিরসারথি, তব রথচক্রে মুখরিত পথ দিনরাত্রি।
দারুণ বিপ্লব-মাঝে       তব শঙ্খধ্বনি বাজে
সঙ্কটদুঃখত্রাতা।
জনগণপথপরিচায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

ঘোরতিমিরঘন নিবিড় নিশীথে পীড়িত মূর্ছিত দেশে
জাগ্রত ছিল তব অবিচল মঙ্গল নতনয়নে অনিমেষে।
দুঃস্বপ্নে আতঙ্কে       রক্ষা করিলে অঙ্কে
স্নেহময়ী তুমি মাতা।
জনগণদুঃখত্রায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

রাত্রি প্রভাতিল, উদিল রবিচ্ছবি পূর্ব-উদয়গিরিভালে –
গাহে বিহঙ্গম, পূণ্য সমীরণ নবজীবনরস ঢালে।
তব করুণারুণরাগে       নিদ্রিত ভারত জাগে
তব চরণে নত মাথা।
জয় জয় জয় হে জয় রাজেশ্বর ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

English: English translation of Jana Gana Mana...

English Translation of Jana Gana Mana in Tagore's Hand-Writing - Part 1

English: English translation of Jana Gana Mana...

English Translation of Jana Gana Mana in Tagore's Hand-Writing - Part 2

It is unfortunate that our National Anthem is mired in controversies . The poem was composed in December 1911, precisely at the time of the Coronation Durbar of George V, and “Bharat Bhagya vidhata” and “Adhinayaka” is considered by some to be in praise of King George V and not God. The composition was first sung during a convention of the then loyalist Indian National Congress in Calcutta on Dec. 26, 1911.It was sung on the second day of the convention, and the agenda of that day devoted itself to a loyal welcome of George V on his visit to India. The event was reported thus in the British Indian press :

“The Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore sang a song composed by him specially to welcome the Emperor.” (Statesman, Dec. 28, 1911)

“The proceedings began with the singing by Rabindranath Tagore of a song specially composed by him in honour of the Emperor.” (Englishman, Dec. 28, 1911)

“When the proceedings of the Indian National Congress began on Wednesday 27th December 1911, a Bengali song in welcome of the Emperor was sung. A resolution welcoming the Emperor and Empress was also adopted unanimously.” (Indian, Dec. 29, 1911)

Many historians aver that the newspaper reports cited above were misguided. The confusion arose in British Indian press since a different song, “Badshah Humara” written in Hindi by Rambhuj Chaudhary , was sung on the same occasion in praise of the monarch. The nationalist Indian press stated this difference of events clearly:-

“The proceedings of the Congress party session started with a prayer in Bengali to praise God (song of benediction). This was followed by a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V. Then another song was sung welcoming King George V.” (Amrita Bazar Patrika, Dec.28,1911)

“The annual session of Congress began by singing a song composed by the great Bengali poet Ravindranath Tagore. Then a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V was passed. A song paying a heartfelt homage to King George V was then sung by a group of boys and girls.” (The Bengalee, Dec. 28, 1911)

Even the report of the annual session of the Indian National Congress of December 1911 stated this difference:

“On the first day of 28th annual session of the Congress, proceedings started after singing Vande Mataram. On the second day the work began after singing a patriotic song by Babu Ravindranath Tagore. Messages from well wishers were then read and a resolution was passed expressing loyalty to King George V. Afterwards the song composed for welcoming King George V and Queen Mary was sung.”

On 10 November 1937 Tagore wrote a letter to Mr Pulin Bihari Sen about the controversy. That letter in Bengali can be found in Tagore’s biography Ravindrajivani, volume II page 339 by Prabhatkumar Mukherjee.

“A certain high official in His Majesty’s service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Vidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India’s chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense.”

Again in his letter of 19 March 1939 Tagore writes,

“I should only insult myself if I cared to answer those who consider me capable of such unbounded stupidity as to sing in praise of George the Fourth or George the Fifth as the Eternal Charioteer leading the pilgrims on their journey through countless ages of the timeless history of mankind.” (Purvasa, Phalgun, 1354, p738.)

Moreover, Tagore was a patriot who wrote other songs too apart from “Jana gana Mana” lionizing the Indian independence movement. He renounced his knighthood in protest against the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. The  Knighthood i.e. the title of ‘Sir’ was conferred on him by the same King George V after receiving the Nobel Prize in Literature for “Gitanjali” from the government of Sweden. Two of Tagore’s more politically charged compositions, “Chitto Jetha Bhayshunyo” (“Where the Mind is Without Fear” :Gitanjali Poem#35) and “Ekla Chalo Re” (“If They Answer Not to Thy Call, Walk Alone”), gained mass appeal, with the latter favoured by Gandhiji and Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose .

In 1919, Tagore travelled to Madanapalle in Andhra Pradesh and spent five days at the Theosophical College with Irish poet James H. Cousins, who was the principal.

On the evening of February 28, 1919, the poet, for the first time, sang the inspiring devotional song and enthralled the college authorities, who selected it as the prayer song.

Tagore subsequently translated the lyrics into English and with the help of Cousins’ wife, Margaret, who was an expert in western music, set down the notation which is being followed till today.

This opened the window for the song to reach national and international audiences.

I personally believe that Gurudev , as he was fondly called  , was a patriot and he created Jana Gana Mana ….. in the honour of Bharat Mata . It was a Brahmo Hymn and not a song in the honour of King George the 5th .

If still people want to raise an accusing finger , it should be pointed at the Congress . The Indian National Congress even passed a resolution praising King George the 5th. A confusion was created by ignorant people and Tagore was blamed for subservient behaviour and the Congress conveniently forgot its resolution praising and hailing the King George 5th of Great Britain . Indian National Congress still keeps enigmatic silence and feigns ignorance , when Tagore is accused for praising the King George V .

It is shameful !

[ Certain portions of this blog is re – produced from Wikipedia and various other sources on internet . I am indebted . I express mu gratitude . ]

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

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100 Years of New Delhi


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           DECEMBER 15 , 2011           01.15 A.M.

On December 12 , 2011 New Delhi completed 100 years of its existence . During British period Calcutta [ now Kolkata ] was the capital of India . During Dilli Darbar of King George 5th ,  foundation stone for the new capital of Indian Empire was laid and thus New Delhi came into existence . It took three and a half months for the British government to decide on shifting the capital . Total cost of shifting was 4 million sterling pound .

1ST AVATAR – HASTINAPUR : It is needless to say that Dilli , now known as Delhi , is much older city . It is one of the oldest existing cities in the world along with Varanasi and Jerusalem . Seat of power since Mahabharat days , Dilli was then known to the world as Hastinapur . Kingdom of mythical Maharaj Shantanu and his descendants ; Kauravas and Pandavas ruled from here and this era ended with Parikshit and Janamejaya . It happened 5,000 years ago . It is said and believed that Purana Qila or Old Fort was built on the same place , where the mythical kingdom of Pandavas once existed . This is the first avatar of Dilli .

Purana Qila ramparts, Delhi.

Purana Qila

Though modern history starts with the Sultanate Period [ 12th century ] but existence of Iron Pillar near Qutub Minar indicates that Gupta Kings must have some kind of authority over Dilli as the Iron Pillar , which is situated in the Qutub Minar compound , was built by king Kumar Gupta 1 of Gupta dynasty .

English: The iron pillar in the Qutb complex n...

Iron Pillar near Qutub Minar

2ND AVATAR – QILA  RAI PITHORA : 2nd avatar of Dilli began to take shape with the Tomar kings . They stablished their capital here . Anangpal was the first Tomar king . Prithvi Raj Chauhan defeated Tomars and stablished Chauhan dynasty . Legendary Prithvi Raj Chauhan was , incidentally , the last Hindu ruler of Dilli . Ruins of his fort Lal Kot , now known as Qila Rai Pithora , is still there . Prithvi Raj Chauhan was defeated by Muhammad Gori and was taken to Ghazni as prisoner , where he died . With his death Chauhan era ended . With the end of this era 2nd avatar of Dilli also lost importance .

3RD AVATAR – MEHRAULI : After Prithvi Raj Chauhan’s defeat and his subsequent banishment , Qutubuddin Aibak became the ruler of Dilli and made Mehrauli his kingdom . Qutub Minar is testimony of his rule . Thus Mehrauli became the 3rd avatar of Dilli .

Qutab Minar in Delhi, India

Qutub Minar

4TH AVATAR – SIRI : 4th avatar of Dilli was built by Alauddin Khilji . Alauddin Khilji made his new capital at Siri . His tomb is situated nearby in Qutub Minar complex .

Siri Fort

Siri Fort

Tomb of Alauddin Khilji, Qutub Minar complex, ...

Tomb of Alauddin Khilji

5TH AVATAR – TUGHLAQABAD : 5th avatar of Dilli was built during the Tughlaq period . It was built by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq and its name was Tughlaqabad .

6TH AVATAR – JAHAPANAH : 6th city was built by Mohammad Bin Tughlaq , named Jahapanah . It was situated between Siri and Qila Rai Pithora .

7TH AVATAR – FEROZABAD : 7th avatar was Ferozabad , also called Feroz Shah Kotla . Firozabad was built by Feroz Shah Tughlaq .

English: Remains of buildings at Firoze Shah K...

Feroz Shah Kotla

8TH AVATAR – SHERGARH : 8th avatar was built by Sher Shah Suri . It’s name was  Shergarh . It was situated near the mythical Indraprastha of Pandavas .

Lal Darwaza or Sher Shah Suri Gate, near Puran...

Sher Shah Suri Gate near Purana Qila

Lal Darwaza (Red Gate)or Sher Shah Gate, with ...

Sher Shah Suri Gate near Purana Qila

9TH AVATAR – LODHI GARDEN : 9th avatar was built during the reign of Lodhi rulers . It is known as  Lodhi garden .

10TH AVATAR – SHAHJAHANABAD : 10th avatar of Dilli is Shahjahanabad . It was built as the kingdom of Shahjahan . It was a walled city with 6 gates . Lal Qila and Chandni Chowk are part of this city built by Shahjahan. Lal Qila or Red Fort is engrained in the memory of every Indian as the symbol of Dilli . Indian Tricolour was unfurled from the ramparts of Red Fort on August 14 , 1947 . It is a custom , which is still followed on the Independence Day .

Bird's eye View of Old Delhi.

Purani Dilli.

11TH AVATAR – NEW DELHI : Then comes New Delhi or Nai Dilli , the 11th avatar , which is also known as Lutyen’s Delhi . It is believed to be the 11th city of Dilli within Dilli . Leading British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker were appointed as the main architects of the new city . The new capital was named  New Delhi in 1927 and was inaugurated on February 13 , 1927 by Lord Irwin .

On December 12 , 2011 New Delhi celebrated 100 years of its existence . Magnificent Rashtrapati Bhawan , and the administrative headquarters , known as North Block and South Block amply testify the tale of New Delhi . A city of intrigues , political conspiracies and game Delhi or Dilli stands supreme and was resurrected every time after its destruction .

Along with Jerusalem , Dilli also tells age-old tales of survival and is now a modern metropolis . I conclude this blog with a Hindi poem , which I read years ago and in my opinion these lines tell the tale of Dilli , which is now known as New Delhi .

अपनी करनी के फल तुझ को ,
कुछ तो करते होंगे उदास ;
आखिर तू भी है दिल वाली ,
कुछ तो डरती होगी दिल्ली ||

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

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