Narendra Modi’s Foreign Policy – Japan


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MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           DECEMBER 13, 2015           10.10 P.M.

In the world of obfuscation of national frontiers, in the age of internet and social media reach, no country can remain isolated. It shouldn’t either. Foreign Policy is, thus the most important aspect of modern governance.

When Prime Minister Narendra Modi took oath of office, it was widely assumed and believed that due to lack of international exposure, he would rather falter if not fail in Foreign Policy. But Prime Minister Narendra Modi surprised his friends, critics and enemies alike. Today after almost 18 months, foreign policy initiatives have become his strongest achievement and accomplishment.

In my last blog I wrote about 3 epoch-making initiatives of Prime Minister Narendra Modi in the realm of foreign policy. He initiated 3 forums to support India’s World View. During the U.N. Climate Change Conference 2015 in Paris [ COP 21 ] , he proposed a new forum of 120 nations named INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ALLIANCE [ I.S.A. ]

Thus the above mentioned 4 new forums bearing Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s signature are there in the foreign policy domain and they will remain the biggest hallmark of India in the coming days. India’s 1st big initiative, Non-Aligned Movement [ N.A.M. ] , started by 1st Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru is, for all practical purposes, now dead. No other Prime Minister after that could usher anything worthwhile. So it is right to say that in the realm of Foreign Policy Narendra Modi is the 2nd most successful Prime Minister of India. He is 2nd to Jawahar Lal Nehru only technically. In fact he is 2nd to none.

4 most successful initiatives of Prime Minister Narendra Modi till date :

1 – Forum for India-Pacific Islands cooperation [ F.I.P.I.C. ]

2 – Indian Ocean Outreach Programme [ I.O.O.P. ]

3 – India-Africa Forum Summit [ I.A.F.S. ]

4 – International Solar Alliance [ I.S.A. ]

 

Foreign Policy successes, apart from multilateral forums,  is also measured in bilateral terms. Prime Minister Narendra Modi scores in this arena also.

Till date Prime Minister Narendra Modi had made 30 foreign trips. He has made 1 visit each to 26 countries. They are : Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, Canada, China, Fiji, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mongolia, Myanmar, Russia, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, South Korea, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, UAE, UK & Uzbekistan.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi made 2 visits each to : France, Nepal, Singapore & USA.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi participated in following multilateral meetings also. They are : BRICS [ Fortaleza & Ufa ] / G-20 [ Brisbane & Antalya ] / ASEAN [ Naypyidaw & Kuala Lumpur ] / SCO [ Dushambe & Ufa ] / IBSA [ New Delhi ] / INDIA-AFRICA FORUM [ New Delhi ] / SAARC [ Kathmandu ] .

He has developed unique and intimate relationships with almost all the world leaders. Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe is one of them.

India - Japan Location Map

India – Japan Location Map

Shinzo Abe came to India on a 3 day official visit on December 11, 2015. This visit, apart from clinching of several deals and contracts, will always be remembered for GANGA AARTI in Varanasi.

 

Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

 

But first let us first look at the other major economic and social accomplishments. Following is the 16 major agreements, known as Power of 16.

Nuclear Energy, Bullet Train, Make In India in Defence, Double Taxation Avoidance are some of the major agreements, which were signed.

16 Agreement Signed with Japan

16 Agreement Signes with Japan

16 Agreement signed with Japan

 

4th Int'l Control Regime

4th Int’l Control Regime

 

Maritime Challenge in Indo-Pacific Region

Maritime Challenge in Indo-Pacific Region

 

Maritime Safety , Trade & Commerce

Maritime Safety , Trade & Commerce

 

ODA Loan

ODA Loan

 

Partnering for Make In India

Partnering for Make In India

 

UNSC Reform

UNSC Reform

 

Shinkansen Bullet Train

Shinkansen Bullet Train

 

But this visit of Japanese Premier will always be remembered for GANGA AARTI on the banks of eternal GANGA in Varanasi. Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited his Lok Sabha constituency and performed pooja and Aarti along with the guest.

 

Coming for GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

Coming for GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

 

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

 

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

 

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

 

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

 

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

 

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

GANGA AARTI in Varanasi Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

 

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[ Photos of Prime Minister Narendra Modi & Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is taken from the twitter handle of Shri Narendra Modi & documents have been photo copied from the twitter handle of Shri Vikas Swaroop, Spokesperson Ministry of external Affairs. I express gratitude. ]

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One Year of Modi & A Blind Arun Shourie


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MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           MAY 12, 2015           06.20,  P.M.

 

Narendra Modi government will be completing one year in office on May 25th, 2015. To commemorate the occasion, there are many articles and several unsolicited advises for Narendra Modi in various newspapers and TV channels. All the critics assume as if he is not Narendra Modi, the hugely successful Chief Minister of Gujarat for 12 long years, but a school kid and knows nothing about politics. Therefore he should be advised about governance.

Every government of the day is prone to criticism and analysis. People should criticize, scrutinize and put forward suggestions for good governance. Some friends and well-wishers of Narendra Modi are rightly doing so.

There are some enemies also. These secular, Left-Liberal, Nehruvian socialists are his political opponents and a group of journalists, known in Social Media as PRESSTITUTES. Congress leaders and leaders of other parties are hellbent that this government must fail and a discredited Narendra Modi should be banished from New Delhi and live there after in perpetual disgrace. PRESSTITUTES are helping them in this endeavour.

And there are FRENEMIES [ Friends in his presence + Enemies in his absence ] also. In the garb of forwarding constructive critique, they are dishing out biased, highly opinionated and one-sided, false stories. These disgruntled lot want to defame Narendra Modi and his government at any cost because they are not entertained by him and are not getting anything from this government. Arun Shourie, for sure, is one of them. He is the kingpin of Narendra Modi’s FRENEMIES.

Shourie can’t see national and international press writings about Modi government. He seems to be unaware of the views of the world leaders about PM Modi and the international accolades he is getting. Though,he praises Modi government’s foreign policy, but still finds faults with it.

Arun Shourie is highly critical about the economic policy orientation of Modi government. He forgets MAKE IN INDIA campaign. He is oblivious of JAN DHAN YOJANA / JAN SURAKSHA YOJANA . MAKE IN INDIA is for the industry and gigantic enterprises. JAN DHAN / JAN SURAKSHA schemes are for the poor populace. Thus Modi government is taking care of all the sections and segments of Indian society.

Shourie doesn’t care about the statistics provided by government or independent sources, but has gumption to come on national television and hurl unsubstantiated charges and proffer it as critique. He certainly has a hidden agenda.

Last week I wrote a blog denouncing his dishonesty. Here is the link

Arun Shourie , A Dishonest Intellectual

 

It gives point by point answer to his 10 points charge sheet against PM Modi. In the present blog I am giving data of PM Modi’s achievements in the field of foreign and economic affairs. All the facts are taken from the twitter-handles of eminent twitter activists. Never-happened-before-achievements are here for everyone to see.

It is not for nothing that BJP [ Bharatiya Janata Party ] is now the largest, biggest party of the world. BJP now has 10 crore+ members. Though Arun Shourie is critical of Amit Shah also.

Today as I am about to post the blog, I just noticed a new tweet about 1 Year of Narendra Modi and 60 Years of Congress Scams. I am posting it here :

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1Year Of & 60Years of Congress See the Difference……….

290 retweets 102 favorites

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General / Miscellaneous Achievements

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BJP government’s first year is one of the best years of Indian economic reform: US Expert – The Economic Times

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BJP now has 10cr+ (100 million) members in its fold. A milestone for any democratic movement in the world. Jai Hind

976 retweets 1,117 favorites

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: Parliament Productivity at Historic High under PM Govt

32 retweets 8 favorites

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news of the week that was missed by the mainstream media.

38 retweets 8 favorites

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There are almost 1700 laws that need to be done away with. I have already decided to remove 700 of them: PM

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New work culture for Ministers in this NDA government!

11 retweets 3 favorites

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New normal for Babus in NaMo Govt.

40 retweets 14 favorites

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Indian PM on in 2012 = The Underachiever. Indian PM on in 2015 = The Reformer in Chief. 🙂

193 retweets 81 favorites

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Economic Reforms

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: Estimated revenue gain due to e-Auction of Coal Blocks is 7 Lakh Crore!

4 retweets 1 favorite

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: Spectrum auction bids cross Rs 1 lakh crore mark | Read more at:

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Spectrum: Comparing the benefit of of Modi govt with the loot of Sonia’s UPA.

51 retweets 21 favorites

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> FYI is doing this but media is still in medieval world & talks of only communal issues

15 retweets 2 favorites

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Modi’s Model village has a new bank, bus stop, school, solar lights, bio toilets, pucca houses & 20,000l water tank

324 retweets 177 favorites

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More about the MUDRA Bank.

628 retweets 649 favorites

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Moody’s Upgrades India’s Outlook to Positive.

4 retweets 3 favorites

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Modi Govt’s Good Governance & Reforms applauded across the world!!

5 retweets 5 favorites

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Make in India gains further momentum. $2 billion cumulative outsourcing planned by from India by 2020.

506 retweets 286 favorites

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news from manufacturing industry. 15 of 22 industry groups posted positive growth in Feb 2015.

53 retweets 26 favorites

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Under PM Govt: India zooms past China to become the world’s fastest-growing Economy.

30 retweets 17 favorites

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Relief to farmers…

15 retweets 15 favorites

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Manufacturing & Industrial Production at 9 months high under Modi Govt.

27 retweets 13 favorites

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For the 1st time in 2 decades, govt registers double digit growth in the electricity generation.

41 retweets 17 favorites

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Powered by Modi Govts GoodGovn,PowerGeneration crosses 1trillion units & Manufacturing,IndustrialProd at 9 mths high.

131 retweets 132 favorites

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Historic Progress in the Power Sector.

618 retweets 752 favorites

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Indian Economy takes giant leaps under PM

20 retweets 14 favorites

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India is on the world map as country of most impressive economic growth

7 retweets 6 favorites

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World is looking at India with new hope thanks to our PM’s leadership

29 retweets 11 favorites

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India overtakes US as third biggest steel producer

8 retweets 2 favorites

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India’s trade deficit falls to a 17 month low.

78 retweets 35 favorites

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The entire world is looking at India.

52 retweets 35 favorites

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India’s Forex Reserves reaches a record high of $343.2 Billion.

52 retweets 25 favorites

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for Indian Women! Massive drive for women in forces.

12 retweets 8 favorites

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– Mission for smart cities takes shape. RT

34 retweets 15 favorites

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& they ask where is ?

54 retweets 22 favorites

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: Huge Surge in FDI inflows under PM Modi Govt For more infographics visit

20 retweets 12 favorites

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Acche din

88 retweets 50 favorites

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New record set: highest ever has been recorded for 11 sectors in a single FY (FY 2014-15)

98 retweets 85 favorites

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Foreign Affairs

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22 retweets 15 favorites

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After Ukraine, Iraq & Libya, in Yemen is the 4th evacuation done under the new Indian Govt.

135 retweets 60 favorites

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Top billing. PM ‘s visit gets wide coverage in French papers.

799 retweets 426 favorites

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Saturation coverage in Toronto papers of

48 retweets 20 favorites

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A leader writes about another. Prez writes about PM in .

1,058 retweets 564 favorites

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The day after Coverage in Canadian print media today, following PM ‘s departure from Vancouver yesterday

502 retweets 352 favorites

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Difference that a willing & ABLE govt can do. No waiting & contemplation period.JUST ACTION

36 retweets 8 favorites

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A whopping 90% of respondents said that handled superbly!

91 retweets 51 favorites

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India has demonstrated its global leadership in recent weeks, 1st in Yemen & now in Nepal. We’re grateful: US Envoy

413 retweets 234 favorites

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आज से शुरू होगी E-VISA सर्वि‍स, दुनि‍या के 40% देशों को भारत ने कि‍या शामि‍ल

28 retweets 16 favorites

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Here is how India’s energy diplomacy has recieved a huge boost with every International visit of PM .

46 retweets 22 favorites

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The facts till now.

22 retweets 7 favorites

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I am not a famous journalist like Arun Shourie. I am not a world-famous intellectual. I am an ordinary citizen of India. If I can see all the above mentioned trends, why can’t Arun Shourie? If I can read all the statistics, why can’t Arun Shourie? It means he has an agenda. He is aggrieved that he is not getting any importance from Modi government. So he is venting out his frustration. It is the case of sour grapes.

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On behalf of all the students & staff of VIDUR Acting Institute , VIDUR Editing Studio , VIDUR Club and VIDUR Merchandise, I would love to see a thoroughly exposed Arun Shourie. 

May he face the ignominy he so rightly deserves.

 

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Mali : A New Battleground


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MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JANUARY 16 , 2013           07.55 P.M.

Birth of Al – Qaeda and demolition of World Trade Centre in New York could be called water – shed moments in the history of modern world . It spawned many Jehads by Al Qaeda against the ” Satanic Western powers ” and several wars by the Western powers to safeguard the world from the ” Islamic menace ” .

War in Afghanistan and killing of Osama Bin Laden are well chronicled and thus need no repetition . But when I read about the recent attack on Mali by French army , I was forced to consult Wikipedia for the history of Mali , as I was not very much familiar with the history of Africa in general and Mali in particular .

An enlargeable map of the Republic of Mali

An enlargeable map of the Republic of Mali (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Green: Mali Federation

Location of Mali Federation (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Republic of Mali , is a landlocked country in West Africa . Mali is bordered by Algeria on the north , Niger on the east , Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire on the south , Guinea on the south-west , and Senegal and Mauritania on the west . Its capital is Bamako .

Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara, while the country’s southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Sénégal rivers. The country’s economic structure centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali’s prominent natural resources include gold and salt. About half the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.

The Songhay Empire at one point controlled alm...

The Songhai Empire at one point controlled almost all of Mali (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Map of the successor states of the Ghana Empir...

Map of the successor states of the Ghana Empire, on the upper Niger river valley, West Africa, circa 1200 Common Era. These outlines are approximate, and should not suggest modern states with fixed borders. States in this era were centered around cities and strong places, with variations of influence radiating out from these points. C. 1200 on the eve of the rise of the Mali Empire, usually dated in the 1240s CE. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade : the Ghana Empire , the Mali Empire (from which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire . During its golden age , there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art .At its peak , Mali was one of the most expansive empires in the world at the time .In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa , France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan . French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959 , achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation . Shortly thereafter , following Senegal’s withdrawal from the federation , the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali . After a long period of one-party rule , a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic , multi-party state .

A conflict in northern Mali began in January 2012 . On 22 March 2012 , a group of junior soldiers seized control of the presidential palace and declared the government dissolved and its constitution suspended . On 6 April 2012 , rebels from the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) declared the secession of a new state , Azawad , from Mali . Shortly after, the MNLA were sidelined by Islamist groups associated with Al-Qaeda, and dropped their demands for secession . The soldiers who seized power allowed Dioncounda Traoré , the President of the National Assembly, to take office as head of state in accordance with the constitution , but they have continued to wield considerable power . Plans to re-take the north with international assistance are being formulated , after which the interim government plans to hold the long-delayed national elections .

This above mentioned history of Mali is taken from Wikipedia and is being re – produced here . I don’t know what will be the outcome of this war ? I fail to forecast the future of Mali ? Won’t be able to say whether Azawad will be a reality or not  ? Will Al Qaeda be rooted out from Mali like Afghanistan or will it succeed here ? Outcome of war is not certain in Mali but it is certain that Mali will not be same again .

It is my belief that my students of acting should know the history of our country and the world .I don’t want to declare my acting institute as the best acting institute of Mumbai or the best acting academy of India and not tell my students about the current affairs of the changing world . I don’t want to claim that I run the most successful acting class in Mumbai and my students are illiterate when it comes to world affairs .

I want that students of my acting class ,  Vidur’s Kreating Charakters , should become a better citizen of India and a conscientious denizens of the world .

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My Blog Space : 2012 in Review


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MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JANUARY 01 , 2013           05.00 P.M.

The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2012 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

4,329 films were submitted to the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. This blog had 36,000 views in 2012. If each view were a film, this blog would power 8 Film Festivals

Click here to see the complete report.

 

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A Visitor From GUERNSEY


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JUNE 09 , 2012           01.00 A.M.

Almost a year back , I added a link of Flag Counter on my blog space . It helps me to know the names of the countries of the visitors of my blog . As soon as a visitor hits my blog , flag of his country appears on my flag counter .

On June 07 , 2012 , when I saw a new flag on the flag counter , I opened the link and got a shock of my life . The new visiting country’s name appeared as GUERNSEY. I rubbed my eyes , pinched my palm and then got assured that the name of the new visiting country is definitely GUERNSEY .

Flag Counter

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Free counters!

Till this date , as I am posting this blog , 116 countries have visited my blog space . GUERNSEY is the 115th country . Frankly speaking , I have not even heard the name of this country . I immediately clicked on the flag counter and got some knowledge about the country . Today I googled GUERNSEY and became more familiar with the country . A tiny island , GUERNSEY is situated 30 miles from the west coast of France and 75 miles south of England . GUERNSEY is a British Crown Dependency . She has a population of 65068 only . Her capital is Saint Peter Port and she has total area of  78 km..

Let us try to know something more about GUERNSEY .

[ Excerpts from Wikipedia ]

Guernsey (play /ˈɡɜrnzi/ GURN-zee), officially the Bailiwick of Guernsey (French: Bailliage de Guernesey, IPA: [bajaʒ də ɡɛʁnəzɛ]), is a British Crown dependency in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.

The Bailiwick of Guernsey embraces not only all 10 parishes on the Island of Guernsey, but also the islands of Herm, Jethou, and Lihou. Furthermore, the Bailiwick includes Alderney and Sark, which each has its own parliament.

Although its defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom, the Bailiwick of Guernsey is not part of the UK; and while it participates in the Common Travel Area, it is not part of the European Union.

The Bailiwick of Guernsey is included (along with the Bailiwick of Jersey) in the grouping known as the Channel Islands.

During World War I approximately 3,000 island men served in the British Expeditionary Force. Of these, about 1,000 served in the Royal Guernsey Light Infantry regiment which was formed from the Royal Guernsey Militia in 1916.

The Bailiwick of Guernsey was occupied by German troops in World War II. Before the occupation, many Guernsey children were evacuated to England to live with relatives or strangers during the war. Some children were never reunited with their families.

Several European countries have consulate presence in the island. The French Consulate is based at Victor Hugo‘s former residence at Hauteville House. The German Honorary Consulate is based at local design and advertising agency Betley Whitehorne.

While Guernsey has complete autonomy over internal affairs and certain external matters, the topic of complete independence from the British Crown has been discussed widely and frequently, with ideas ranging from Guernsey obtaining independence as a Dominion to the bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey uniting and forming an independent Federal State within the Commonwealth, whereby both islands retain their independence with regards to domestic affairs but internationally, the islands would be regarded as one state.

English is the language in general use by the majority of the population, while Guernésiais, the Norman language of the island, is spoken fluently by only about 2% of the population (according to 2001 census). However, 14% of the population claim some understanding of the language.  Georges Métivier, considered by some to be the island’s national poet, wrote in Guernesiais. The loss of the island’s language and the Anglicisation of its culture, which began in the nineteenth century and proceeded inexorably for a century, accelerated sharply when the majority of the island’s school children were evacuated to the UK for five years during the German occupation of 1940–1945.

Georges Métivier

[ Georges Métivier, considered by some to be the island’s national poet. ]

Victor Hugo wrote some of his best-known works while in exile in Guernsey, including Les Misérables. His home in St. Peter Port, Hauteville House, is now a museum administered by the city of Paris. In 1866, he published a novel set in the island, Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea), which he dedicated to the island of Guernsey.

Location of Guernsey

Location of Guernsey

Image of the Crown Dependencies

Image of Guernsey , British Crown Dependencies (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Map of Guernsey

Map of Guernsey

Map of the parishes of Guernsey.

Map of the parishes of Guernsey. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Flag of Guernsey (bordered)

Flag of Guernsey (bordered) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Civil ensign of Guernsey

Civil ensign of Guernsey (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Flag of Guernsey flying in St. Peter Port

Flag of Guernsey flying in St. Peter Port (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Airport of Guernsey

Airport of Guernsey

St. Peter Port

St. Peter Port

Guernsey 10

Guernsey (Photo credit: neonbubble)

Guernsey 04

Guernsey (Photo credit: neonbubble)

Guernsey

Guernsey

Guernsey Harbour

Guernsey Harbour

Ryman Auditorium, where The Byrds made their a...

Ryman Auditorium, where The Byrds made their appearance at the Grand Ole Opry on March 15, 1968. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Guernsey 11

Guernsey (Photo credit: neonbubble)

I never knew above mentioned facts , which I have taken from Wikipedia . I am a student of history and always take pride in the fact that my general knowledge is very good . Still I have not heard about GUERNSEY . I was even oblivious of her existence .

So , when an anonymous visitor from GUERNSEY visited my blog space , I was elated . I was simply ecstatic . I don’t think I will get an opportunity to visit this beautiful island nation . But who know ? May be some day I will land there . May be some day I will get a chance to pay obeisance to the house , where Victor Hugo stayed and wrote some of his famous novels .

WHO KNOWS ! !

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South Sudan : Birth of A Nation


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JANUARY 08 , 2012           11.45 P.M.

It is not that every day a new country is born . It happens occasionally . It happens once in a life time . So when I read about the vivisection of Sudan , a country in Africa , I was pleasantly surprised .

In my 60 years of existence , I have seen birth of 28 major countries . I might be forgetting some tiny countries but 28 major countries took birth during my life time and I vividly remember those epoch – making moments . So when Sudan was split into two , I decided to chronicle these events .

Bangladesh :

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English: East Bengal Map

Map of Bangladesh

Map of Bangladesh

First major country , whose birth I remember , was Bangladesh . She came into being in 1971 after a bloody and gory battle with Pakistan . Formerly East Pakistan , the new country Bangladesh , became independent in 1971 .

Birth of Bangladesh is proof that religion can not be a binding factor for a country . In the case of Bangladesh , the common religion , Islam failed to unite two wings of Pakistan .

Bangladesh became a member of United Nation Organization in 1974 .

Vietnam :

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Map of Vietnam with Indo - China Nations

Vietnam’s journey as a nation is fascinating . From Imperial China to French colonizers she travelled through the centuries and the journey was an arduous one at times . Later on Vietnam accepted communism , she was divided into two ; North Vietnam and South Vietnam . North Vietnam was communist and South Vietnam was capitalist . Hanoi and Saigon were the capital cities of two Vietnams respectively . Both parts of Vietnams were united on July 02 , 1976 .

Vietnam is one nation . She was divided into two states . But nationalism prevailed and finally Vietnam was united again and again became one nation .

Germany :

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Map of East & West Germany

Map of Germany

History of Germany is very fascinating . Germany’s case , like Vietnam , is the classic case of a nation triumphing over a state . Basically a nation , Germany was divided into two states after 1945 . Communist East Germany was called German Democratic Republic with East Berlin as capital . Capitalist  West Germany was called Federal Republic of Germany with Bonn as capital .

After just 45 years of vivisection , German nationalism prevailed and Germany once again became one nation in 1990 . Berlin became the national capital and Berlin wall was demolished .

Case of Germany is like Vietnam . Both are one nation . Both were divided into two states . Political divisions like capitalism and communism were unable to divide them and they finally became one nation .

Union of Soviet Socialist Republic :

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Map of U.S.S.R.

If Vietnam and Germany are the symbols of victory of nation over state , then USSR is the symbol of failure of state in front of nationalism . Vietnam and Germany were one nation divided in two states . Finally they became one nation . USSR was one state with 15 nations and was dissolved in 1991 after 69 years of artificial existence and 15 independent and sovereign nations came into being .

Russia , Ukrain , Belarus , Uzbekistan , Turkmenistan , Tajikistan , Azerbijan , Kazakhistan , Kirghizstan , Georgia , Armenia , Moldova , Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania were merged to form USSR [ Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ] . They became independent in 1991 .

It was most momentous time of my life . Mighty USSR just collapsed in front of my eyes and 15 new nations were born . It never seemed probable even a month before December 1991 that an invincible looking USSR will cease to exist .

All 15 nations became members of  U. N. O. in 1992 .

Yugoslavia ;

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Map of Yugoslavia

Former Parts of Yugoslavia

After fall of USSR , other communist nations were also became vulnerable . Yugoslavia , another classic case of one state and several nations , became unstable. Artificially created state of Yugoslavia disintegrated in 1991 after demise of Josip Broz Tito and collapse of Union of Soviet Socialist Republic .

Croatia , Serbia , Slovenia , Mecedonia , Montenegro and Bosnia & Herzegovina asserted their nationalistic aspirations and became independent and sovereign nations .

Off all these 6 nations ; Croatia , Slovenia and Bosnia & Herzegovina became members of U. N. O. in 1992 . Mecedonia became a member in 1993 , Serbia joined in 2000 and the 6th one Montenegro became member of U. N. O. in 2006 .

Czechoslovakia :

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Map of Czechoslovakia

Czech Republic & Slovakia

After USSR and Yugoslavia , another communist country , Czechoslovakia , collapsed soon . She was also one state and two nations . On January 01 , 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia became independent and they both joined U. N. O. in 1993 .

South Sudan :

===============

Sudan’s case is different . She is one nation but religion divides them . North Sudan is Islamic and finds solace in the comity of Arab nations . South Sudan is Christian and is not comfortable with Arab identity .

After 5 decades of guerrilla struggle and loss of 2 million lives , South Sudan came into existence on July 09 , 2011 . She became Africa’s 54th state with Juba as the capital of the new state .

Religion failed to unite Pakistan and Bangladesh . In Sudan’s case religion divided them . Fate of South Sudan is unknown and precarious . Majority of its people live on less than a dollar a day . Almost three-quarter of  adults cannot read or write . Only 1% has a bank account .

Sudan with Khartoum as its capital is Islamic and prefers Arab identity . While South Sudan with Juba as its capital is Christian and prefers western identity . South Sudan is the 54th African state and 193rd member of United Nations Organization .

India South Sudan Locator

Location of India & South Sudan

Sudan - South Sudan - Locator map

Location of Sudan & South Sudan

Map of Sudan

Map of North & South Sudan

English: Seal of the Government of Southern Sudan

Seal of Government of South Sudan

So South Sudan became the 54th African State . She became newest and 193rd country of the world . She became the 28th nation to become independent in my life time . As I stated earlier , countries don’t take birth everyday . Birth of a nation is a rare experience . I am lucky that I could witness birth of 28 nations in my life .

It is rare . It is unique . It is not going to happen again . Welcome 193rd nation of this earth !

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

 

An Internet Bloomer : 2011


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           January 07 , 2012            01.50 A.M.

My last year’s article about my forays into internet was an impromptu effort . Since the activities are escalating by each passing year , I decided to give it a proper shape and post an account of my internet activities every year in the first week of January .

FACEBOOK : www.facebook.com / Vidur Chaturvedi

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As I have stated last year , Facebook was my first foray into internet  . In 2010 , I had 517 friends , which jumped to 1468 friends in 2011 . In one year 951 new friends joined me in my journey . In 2010 ,  I had created 16 albums and up – loaded 1163 photos .  In 2011 ,  it jumped to 24 albums and 2078 photos . In one year , a jump of , 6 more albums and 915 new photos .

I started posting THOUGHT of the DAY every night post 12.00 A.M. from August 2010 . Tonight when I posted my thought , I was surprised to notice that its number is 510 . Uninterrupted run of 510 days is quite a long journey indeed .

BLOG : www.mevidur.wordpress.com

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I started blogging in March 2009 . My first blog was posted on March 30 , 2009 . I created my account on WordPress on that day and started blogging .

Till the end of 2010 , I had posted 150 blogs . At the end of 2011 , its number is 227 . This blog will be 228th in the series . A leap of 78 blogs in one year .

Till the end of 2010 , I used to write in 28 categories . At the end of 2011 , I am using all the 32 categories . In 2010 I had 566 tags and in 2011 they have jumped to 1,963 . It is a big leap of 1,397 tags .

In 2010 , September 27 was the busiest day . I got 108 hits in a single day . It seems to be norm now in 2011 . 124 hits on April 14 ; 114 on September 07 ; 142 on September 20 ; 105 on December 28 , 124 on December 29 and 113 on January 06 , 2012 . April 18 , 2011 was the busiest day for my blog space . I got 219 hits . In 2011 , on 06 occasions , I got more than 90 hits per day . Total number of hits in 2010 were 8,107 . 2011 took a gigantic leap . Total number of hits are 25,549 . 17,442 hits in one year . It comes to 1453 hits per month and almost 50 hits per day . It is a far cry from 4 / 5 hits per day in the beginning of blogging .

In 2011 ,  I added flag counter to my blog space . To my amazement , I found that people of 84 countries have visited my blog space . In 2010 Flag Counter was not there . So comparative data is not available . But I am ecstatic .  Apart from India , name of other nations , whose nationals visited my blog space , are ; U.S.A. ; UNITED KINGDOM ; TAIWAN ; PAKISTAN ; NETHERLANDS ; CANADA ; U.A.E. ; SAUDI ARABIA ; BELGIUM ; BANGLADESH ; FRANCE ; AUSTRALIA ; GERMANY ; MALAYSIA ; QATAR ; ITALY ; NEPAL ; SINGAPORE ; BAHRAIN ; HONG KONG ; OMAN ; SERBIA ; SWEDEN ; SWITZERLAND ; SRI LANKA ; THAILAND ; POLAND ; INDONESIA ; SOUTH AFRICA ; MALDIVES ; PORTUGAL ; SOUTH KOREA ; BRAZIL ; JAPAN ; UKRAINE ; NEW ZEALAND ; GREECE ; RUSSIA ; TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO ; TUNISIA ; ROMANIA ; MONTENEGRO ; MAURITIUS ; ISRAEL ; FINLAND ; ECUADOR ; ALGERIA ; PHILIPPINES ; ICELAND ; HUNGARY ; MEXICO ; URUGUAY ; BULGARI ; AUSTRIA ; MOROCCO ; AZERBAIJAN ; MOLDOVA ; LEBANON ; KUWAIT ; MOZAMBIQUE ; TURKEY ; BELARUS ; BHUTAN ; ALBANIA ; GHANA ; KENYA ; VENEZUELA ; SLOVAKIA ; CZECH REPUBLIC ; COLOMBIA ; VIETNAM ; HONDURAS ; EGYPT ; NORWAY ; LUXEMBOUR ; GLATVIA ; BOLIVIA ; DENMARK ; CROATIA  and  IRELAND . Apart from above mentioned 84 countries , there were 19 other visits from unknown destinations . It makes the number of visiting country 103 . It is very encouraging for a non – entity like me .

List of my most – read blogs are also increasing . In 2010 , only 10 blogs had got more than 100 visits . In 2011 Home Page had got 7,016 hits . One blog post got more than 1,081 hits . Another one got 6,21 ; one got more than 430 ; 4 blog posts got more than 3,00 ; 2 got more than 2,00 and 19 posts got more than 100 hits .

I am in real ecstasy . I am numb . I am humbled .

TWITTER : www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

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I started twitter account on June 17 , 2009 . Till the end of 2010 , I had posted 2,740 tweets and had got 142 followers . Till the end of 2011 , I had posted 4,977 tweets and had got 392 followers . A jump of 2,237 tweets and 250 followers .

LINKED IN : http://www.linkedin.com/in/mevidur

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Till the end of 2010 , I had just 11 Linked In connections . It jumped to 48 connections in 2011 .

Apart from above mentioned activities , I have Wikipedia Profile , YouTube Channel , Google Account and few others . All these accounts , for convenience , are assembled in Gravator Profile .

It is now 32 month – old passion . I would like to call it A Dream of Passion on Internet .

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

Centenary of The Historic Jump of Veer Savarkar


On September 17, 2010 , there was an innocuous news item in the Mumbai edition of Hindustan Times about the death of Vishwas Savarkar, son of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, a.k.a. Veer Savarkar or Swatantryaveer  Savarkar. I am reproducing that news item here :
” Vishwas V. Savarkar, the sole surviving son of revolutionary leader Veer Damodar Savarkar, passed away in Mumbai on Friday morning following a brief illness, a close family friend said. He was 83. He died around 11 am at the Savarkar Sadan, the family’s ancestral house near Shivaji Park in central

Mumbai’s Dadar, where his father had also lived for several years, family friend Arvind Godbole said. He is survived by his wife Sunder and two married daughters – Asilata who lives in Thane and Vidula who is settled in Hyderabad.

Vishwas Savarkar’s funeral was held in Dadar, said Godbole, who served as a physician to the Savarkar family.

During his lifetime, the soft-spoken and low-profile Vishwas Savarkar was employed with the Walchand Group and later authored four books, including the noted Katha Krantiveeranchya, besides writing articles and columns for various publications.

His last major public statement defending his father had come in the wake of a controversy over the installation of Veer Savarkar’s statue in parliament nearly eight years ago.

Veer Savarkar was one of the accused in the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi but was acquitted for lack of evidence.

At the Gandhi murder trial; Savarkar seated in...

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Before Vishwas, his elder siblings, brother Prabhakar and two sisters, Prabhat and Shalini, had expired over the years.

With his death, the last direct surviving link with Savarkar, who passed away in 1966, has also ended “.

There were several comments also. I am reproducing just one comment :

condolences to savarkar family..who have suffered a lot for the country along with other revoultionary families..why is this line here?
”Veer Savarkar was one of the accused in the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi but was acquitted for lack of evidence “
this shows that indian media is pathetic..they dont even trust the judgement of the courts…the court acquited veer savarkarji not on grounds of lack of evidence but on grounds of that charge was baseless.

Congress runs smear campaigns against all the freedom fighters of India, who were not the followers of Mahatma Gandhi. I am not going to criticize Mahatma Gandhi or his followers. Their contribution towards our freedom struggle was immense. But this doesn’t  mean that others were sitting idle or were doing nothing. All the revolutionaries suffered a lot and were subjected to most cruel sentences at the hands of Brtish masters. I am giving some facts about Veer Savarkar, which are not known to the present generation :

Veer Savarkar – A legend
Savarkar (above) and Gandhi politely agreed to...

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  • The first political leader to daringly set Absolute Political Independence as India’s goal (1900).
  • The first Indian political leader to daringly perform a bonfire of foreign (English) clothes (1905).
  • The first Indian to organize a revolutionary movement for India’s Independence on an international level (1906).
  • The first Indian law student who was not called to the English Bar despite having passed his examination and observed the necessary formalities, for his activities to seek India’s freedom from the British (1909).
  • The only Indian leader whose arrest in London caused legal difficulties for British Courts and whose case is still referred to in the interpretations of the Fugitive Offenders Act and the Habeas Corpus (Rex Vs Governor of Brixton Prison, ex-parte Savarkar)
  • The first Indian historian whose book on the 1857 War of Independence was proscribed by British Authorities in India even before its publication. The Governor General had asked the Postmaster General to confiscate copies of the book six months before the book was officially banned (1909).
  • The first political prisoner whose daring escape and arrest on French soil became a cause celebre in the International Court of Justice at The Hague. This case was mentioned in many International Treaties at that time (1910).
  • The first graduate whose degree was withdrawn by an Indian University for striving for India’s freedom (1911).
  • The first poet in the world who, deprived of pen and paper, composed his poems and then wrote them on the prison walls with thorns and nails, memorized ten thousand lines of his poetry for years and later transmitted them to India through his fellow-prisoners who also memorized these lines.
  • The first revolutionary leader who within less than 10 years gave a death-blow to the practice of untouchability in the remote district of Ratnagiri while being interned there.
  • The first Indian leader who successfully started –
    • A Ganeshotsava open to all Hindus including ex-untouchables (1930).
    • Interdining ceremonies of all Hindus including ex-untouchables (1931).
    • “Patitpavan Mandir”, open to all Hindus including ex-untouchables (22 February 1931).
    • A cafe open to all Hindus including ex-untouchables (01 May 1933).
  • The first political prisoner in the world who was sentenced to Transportation for Life twice, a sentence unparalleled in the history of the British Empire.
  • The first political leader to embrace death voluntarily by way of Atma Samarpan in the highest tradition of Yoga (1966).
Group photo of Hindu Mahasabha. Standing: Shan...

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Need I say anything else ? Yet the Centennary  of his historic Jump was completely ignored by the National Press and the Congress regimes of Maharashtra and the Centre.

” Savarkar’s historic leap into the ocean off the coast of Marseilles, France on Friday, 08 July 1910 is a watershed event in the history of our Freedom Movement.  Savarkar’s daring escape and arrest on French soil became a cause celebre in the Permanent Court of Arbitration, Hague as the International Court of Justice was then called. The extraordinary chain of events starting with Savarkar’s extradition from Britain to India on board the S.S. Morea (01 July 1910) and culminating in the award by the Arbitral Tribunal (24 February 1911) has been referred to as ‘The Savarkar Case’ and “L’affaire Savarkar’ by British and French chroniclers of that time.  L’affaire Savarkar catapulted the issue of India’s freedom at the international level.  As we observe the centenary of that momentous event, it is worth recalling its details.

Background: On 26 May 1906, Savarkar left India for England after securing ‘The Shivaji Fellowship’ announced by Sardar Singh Rana.  Savarkar’s name had been recommended to Shyamji Krishnavarma of the India House, London by no less than Lokmanya Tilak who as per Shyamji’s instructions had also paid Rs. 400 to Savarkar.  Though Savarkar had ostensibly gone to London to become a Barrister, he soon became the fiery leader of the Indian Revolutionary Movement in England.  Among other things, he penned ‘The Indian War of Independence, 1857, by an Indian Nationalist’ and a Marathi version of Mazzini’s autobiography with a memorable 26 page introduction.  The Rowlatt Committee (1918) that evaluated “political terrorism in India” summarized some of Savarkar’s activities thus: “In February of that year (1909) Vinayak Savarkar, who had obtained from Paris a parcel of twenty Browning automatic pistols with ammunition, sent them out to Bombay concealed in the false bottom of a box…” These pistols had been discovered in different parts of India, situated as far as Nashik and Kolkata; one of them was later used by Dhingra to assassinate Curzon Wylie.  Savarkar had also secured the manuscript of a bomb manual that Hem Chandra Das had secured with the help of some Russian revolutionaries.  “Savarkar’s copy contained forty-five sketches of bombs, mines and buildings to illustrate the text” said the Rowlatt Committee report.  The conviction of elder brother Ganesh (09 June 1909), assassination of Sir William Curzon Wylie by Madan Lal Dhingra (01 July 1909), Dhingra’s martyrdom (17 August 1909), assassination by Anant Kanhere of A.M.T. Jackson, the District Magistrate of Nashik who had committed Ganeshpant Savarkar to trial (21 December 1909) were events that followed in quick succession and in Savarkar’s words proved that “India is advancing and the Hindu race is not dead”.

Savarkar’s political leadership of the India House had come to the notice of British authorities.  On 13 May 1909, benchers of Gray’s Inn charged Savarkar (and Harnam Singh) with various offences such as sedition and trying to overthrow the Government of India established by law.  Though the benchers could prove none of the charges, they decided that Savarkar would not be called to the Bar. The following telegram dated 15 March 1909 from the Viceroy to the disciplinary committee of Gray’s Inn shows how keen the British Government was to punish Savarkar, “ Reuter wired 7thMarch that Benchers, Gray’s Inn, had postponed calling to the Bar two Indian students owing to connexion with Indian sedition.  If either student is V.D. Savarkar, this connexion is undoubted.  We are sending by this mail important documents establishing his active participation in seditious movements.” (Mukund Sonpatki, Daryapar, Marathi, Purandare Prakashan, Pune, 1980, p 20-21).  Recently (12 June 2010), this writer wrote to the archivist of Gray’s Inn inquiring the availability of original documents.  He got the following reply (14 June 2010) from the archivist of Gray’s Inn, “Thank you for your enquiry.  I can confirm that further to various charges made by the British authorities against Savarkar (who had indeed been admitted to Gray’s Inn on 26 June 1906), the Inn enquired into his activities, and that his call to the Bar was postponed, in accordance with a decision of the Bench of 14 July 1909. The Inn did not remove his membership, but he subsequently withdrew from the Inn at his own request: this request to withdraw was received and allowed on 16 March 1910. Unfortunately the Inn was heavily bombed during World War II and virtually all documentation relating to individual students was destroyed, including that relating to Savarkar. I would be willing however to extract for you the relevant entries in the surviving minutes of Pension, the Inn’s governing body, which summarise the formal process of the Inn’s enquiry. This is unlikely to contain much information with which you are not already familiar, but will at least provide an accurate timescale as far as Savarkar’s connection with the Inn is concerned.”  This writer is hopefully waiting for further information to be unearthed.

After his brave public support to Dhingra at Caxton Hall (05 July 1909), Savarkar had become a marked man in the eyes of the British authorities.  Darkness seemed to envelope him on personal and public fronts.

Savarkar’s elder brother had already been sentenced to Transportation for Life in the Andamans and his entire property had been confiscated.  His younger brother Narayan was on the brink of arrest.  The responsibility of the household rested on the shoulders of his sister-in law Yashodabai (Yesuvahini) and wife Yamunabai (Mai).  His only son, Prabhakar aged four had died in 1909.  The trial and execution of Dhingra spelt the doom of “The House of Mystery” as India House was referred to in the British Press.  Shyamji now shifted to Paris.  In Shyamji’s words, “we felt that he (Savarkar) was no longer safe in England and we besought him to quit “Perfide Albion” without delay…After repeated appeals he was at last persuaded to come to Paris and we were delighted to know that our young friend was safely in our midst, free from the clutches of his relentless enemies…the probability was that the alien oppressors of our country would take good care to put him out of the way, fearing lest an active and capable young man of his temperament might wreak a righteous vengeance.” (Indulal Yajnik, Shyamji Krishnavarma: Life and Times of an Indian Revolutionary, Lakshmi Publications, Bombay, 1950, p 286).  It is worth noting that before acceding to Shyamji’s requests, Savarkar had publicly celebrated Dassara in London on 24 October 1909.  The meeting was attended by Muslims and Christians as well and was chaired by Gandhi.  Gandhi remarked that it was an honour for him to get an opportunity to sit next to Savarkar and that he had experienced what is referred to as inspiring oratory.  Despite being under tremendous physical and mental strain and affliction with pneumonia, Savarkar started writing a 200 page Marathi book on the history of the Sikhs during his recuperation in Wales.  Savarkar finally left London for Paris on 06 January 1910.

Fearless return to London: By November 1909, the Bombay Government was seriously considering Savarkar’s arrest.  The Jackson murder in Nashik led to widespread arrests and extreme torture of the youth in Maharashtra.  On 01 February 1910, the preliminary investigations into the Jackson murder came to an end.  The police established that the weapon used for the Jackson murder had been sent from London by Savarkar.  The magistrate ordered that Savarkar be arrested on charges of sedition, waging was against the Government and conspiring to overthrow it.  He also invoked the Fugitive Offenders’ Act 1881 against Savarkar and sent a copy of this to the Bow Street Magistrate so that Savarkar could be arrested in London.  But Savarkar was in Paris.  He could not sit quiet.  He organized meetings of revolutionaries in Paris, administered pledges to Indian youth, studied biographies of Garibaldi, read the third volume of Mazzini’s writings and completed his Marathi book on the history of the Sikhs.  He continued to write inflammable letters to India and send Browning pistols. But Savarkar was still restless. He told Shyamji that he wanted to return to India and prove his leadership.  Knowing that arrest in India and subsequent prolonged imprisonment was imminent, Shyamji and Madam Cama pleaded with him to reconsider his decision.  Shyamji told him: “You are a general and must not rush to the firing line with the rank.” But Savarkar replied, “But it is only by fighting first by their side in the firing line that I can prove my worth of being exalted to the position of a general: otherwise every one would think himself, by a deceptive notion of one’s self importance to be as indispensable, as a general and thus claim to remain at the Headquarters. Then who would fight? Will not, moreover, this kind of argument serve the cowards as a handy shield to hide their fear?” (Chitragupta, The Life of Barrister Savarkar, p 130-131; according to one version, Chitragupta was the pen name of none other than Savarkar himself).

Seeing that he would not budge, Madam Cama finally pleaded with him to return to London as the judicial system was fairer there.  Savarkar told himself, “I must have work! If not India I must go to England. I must risk even as my followers have done and show that I cannot merely sacrifice but even suffer. If I get arrested, well that would be the real test of mettle, I have bragged of being pledged to face imprisonments, exiles, tortures, death in the cause of the Independence of my Motherland. Now is the time to test myself if I could bear a part of these calamities and still stand unmoved and faithful to my Faith. Youngsters who took lessons at my feet have braved the gallows and kept their pledge of fighting even unto death; should their trusted teacher and guide and friend and philosopher keep running away from shore to shore and leave them all lurch shielding myself to work greater wonders? The first great wonder that I must work is to prove my capacity and ability to work wonders by standing by guns and if the worst comes to the worst face arrests and tortures and still stand unshaken and immoveable and if possible try to frustrate the toes by effecting my release or stay out all their tortures or in the end die fighting. If I survive in spite of risking and come out unscathed from the ordeal then I might hold myself justly entitled to spare me as a general without the least danger of demoralizing either myself or my followers. Well if I don’t survive I shall have kept my word, my pledge of striving to free India even unto death and leave a glorious example of martyrdom which in these days of mendacity and cringing political slavery is one thing wanted to fire the blood of my people and to rouse and enthuse them to great deeds. A great martyrdom: some grand example of utter sacrifice and willing suffering: and India is saved. No amount of cowardly tactics in the name of work can whip her back into life. I will risk, will myself pay the highest price—then alone I shall have right to exhorted others to risk and suffer and pay.”  (Chitragupta, ibid, p 135-136).

Savarkar finally decided to return to London in spite of the misgivings of his associates.  Savarkar was fully aware of the Fugitive Offenders’ Act that had been slapped on him.  Coming to London was an act of uncommon bravery!  On 13 March 1910, Savarkar left Paris and reached Newhaven on the south coast of England.  From there, he boarded a train to Victoria Station, London.  He was promptly arrested at the station itself after a brief struggle. He was shown an Indian warrant, charging him with sedition and inciting to murder in India.  Savarkar merely smiled and said, “Yes, sir”. He was taken to the Bow Street Magistrate.  A search of his belongings revealed nationalist books, newspaper cuttings, photographs of Mazzini and Madan Lal Dhingra, his writings on Garibaldi and a paper with code language.  The police tortured him to decode the paper but Savarkar did not yield.

Extradition to India: The well-known English author David Garnett who had befriended Savarkar writes in his autobiography The Golden Echo (Harcourt, Brace and Company, New York, 1954, p 153), “From the point of view of the government his arrest was peculiar and required careful handling. They had evidence of his connection with the murder of Mr. Jackson at Nasik, but were not prepared to charge him with it. For the murder occurred while Savarkar was in London and he ought, therefore, to be tried in London. If he were tried in England on, let us say, an incitement-to-murder charge, he would, if convicted, get a sentence of two or three years. If he were tried in India, it would be another matter. The authorities were therefore trying to extradite him to India, but to do so they had to dig up, or manufacture, evidence of crimes committed while he was in India, carefully avoiding reference to the crimes he might have committed in London. This took some time, and while the case was being prepared, Savarkar had to be brought up at Bow Street week after week and remanded, bail being refused.

Eventually, the Indian authorities dug up some speeches that Savarkar had delivered in India several years before, and for which they had had ample opportunity to prosecute him at the time. They then applied for his extradition on that evidence only. The evidence was thin, for the speeches had been delivered at a time when the political atmosphere in India was completely different. The speeches, which had not been thought worth prosecuting him for at the time, had become seditious as the ferment of unrest increased in India.”

The English proceedings” as Savarkar’s English friend Guy Aldred (Aldred was the first Englishman to court imprisonment for the cause of India’s freedom) remarked, “at the Bow Street Police Court, the Divisional Court and the Court of Appeal were characterized by the usual illegality.  The English Government had determined on Savarkar’s return to India…The Courts decided that had there been no abetment of murder charge, it would have been harsh to have sent him to India on the sedition charge.  On the other hand, it urged that since the speeches – on which the sedition charge was based – were delivered in Hindustani it was fairer for him to be tried in India.  This was the opinion of the Lord Chief Justice.  Mr. Justice Coleridge dissented from sending Savarkar to India but waived his dissent as a minority view.” (Yajnik, ibid, p 287).

That the British authorities were planning Savarkar’s extradition to India soon after his arrest is evident from a letter (dated 26 March 1910) written by Asst. Police Inspector Guyder of Bombay Police to Deputy Superintendent C.I.D. Charles John Power who was leaving Mumbai for London with an arrest warrant for Savarkar.  Power was to be accompanied by three police jamadarsAmarsingh Sakharamsingh Pardeshi (an erstwhile member of the Savarkar’s secret society Mitra Mela, Muhammad Sadiq and Usman Khan; the last died after reaching London).  The warrant was given to Power on 08 February 1910 (Sonpatki, ibid, p 90).

Savarkar was remarkably composed in prison.  When his associate Niranjan Pal asked him why he had knowingly courted arrest despite the advice of his compatriots, Savarkar replied bravely, “I came to London to be arrested, because my shoulders are broad enough to bear the consequences.”  His Marathi poem ‘Maazhe mrityupatra’ (My Last Testament) composed while in Brixton Jail and addressed to his sister-in-law is immortal in the annals of Marathi literature.  To his associate VVS Aiyar who met him in prison, Savarkar said that propaganda for the country’s freedom should continue.

Attempts to free Savarkar:

On 20 March 1910, a committee had been formed under the Chairmanship of VVS Aiyar to secure Savarkar’s release.  Savarkar’s friend David Garnett, who was then just eighteen, too had thought of a plan.  Savarkar was taken every week to Bow Street in a taxi for the formalities of a remand.  He was accompanied by one, or sometimes two detectives. His going up for a weekly remand had become a routine matter and he was taken from the prison at the same time, within two or three minutes.  The essence of Garnett’s plan was that Savarkar was to be rescued at the prison gates, or within a few yards of them.  A watcher would note when the taxi which was to take him to Bow Street drove up.  A car would then drive up to the prison with supposed visitors, who would overpower the detectives, and Savarkar would jump in the car, which would drive off with him.  The essential feature of the rescue was that the rescuers should not seek to avoid arrest, or to escape themselves.  Garnett planned to get two men from Paris who would willingly go to jail for long periods in order to rescue Savarkar. Garnett decided that the best plan was to bring them into England on a yachting trip, land them early on the morning of the rescue, drive them straight to Brixton, rescue Savarkar, drive back with him, embark him and sail to France.  Garnett’s intention was to arm the rescuers with bags of pepper and loaded truncheons.  Garnett discussed the plan with Savarkar who approved of it.  Garnett bought a disguise consisting of a motoring hat and veil, then commonly worn by female motorists, for Savarkar.  The plan miscarried but Savarkar remained calm as ever.  He told Garnett, ‘Do not worry about me.  I shall escape somehow.  I have a plan worked out already, in case your plan failed” (Garnett, ibid, pp 154-160).

That Savarkar was also devising a plan of his own to escape is evident from the conversation he had with Aiyar when the two met in Brixton Jail.  Mindful of the presence of the prison guard, Savarkar told Aiyar, “If allowed, can have an interview at Marseilles!”  By April 1910, Scotland Yard had decided to arrest Aiyar himself as Savarkar’s right-hand man.  Aiyar got wind of this plan and met Savarkar for the last time on 18 April 1910.  Sensing that this was probably going to be their last meeting, both became emotional.  But Savarkar controlled his emotions and told Aiyar, “No. we have read the Gita!  We must not weep in the presence of these unsympathetic crowds.”  Aiyar left for Paris on the following day.  Aiyar and Madam Cama had also devised a plan to free Savarkar at Marseilles where the liner carrying Savarkar would be anchored.  But Scotland Yard had got wind of this plan.  The Scotland Yard report dated 24 June 1910 notes that before the Moreahad left Tilbury, the London Police had been told that Aiyar and his friends planned to meet Savarkar for the last time in Marseilles and were keen to know the name of the boat carrying him.  Accordingly, they desire to go to Marseilles to meet Savarkar (Sonpatki, ibid, p 92).

By a letter, dated the 29 June 1910, the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police in London informed the ” Directeur de la Sûreté générale ” at Paris, that the British-Indian Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was about to be sent to India, in order to be prosecuted for abetment of murder etc., and that he would be on board the vessel ” Morea” touching at Marseilles on the 7th or 8th July.  In consequence of the receipt of this letter, the Ministry of the Interior informed the Prefect of the “Bouches-du-Rhône “, by a telegram dated the 4th July 1910, that the British Police were sending Savarkar to India on board the steamship ” Morea “. This telegram stated that some “révolutionnaires hindous” then on the Continent, might take advantage of this to further the escape of this foreigner, and the Prefect was requested to take the measures necessary to guard against any attempt of that kind.  The ” Directeur de la Sûreté générale ” replied by a letter dated the 9th July 1910 to the letter of the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, stating that he had given the necessary instructions for the purpose of guarding against the occurrence of any incident during the presence at Marseilles of the said Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, on board the steamship ” Morea ” (Reports of International Arbitral Awards, The Savarkar Case (Great Britain, France), 24 February 1911, Volume IX; pp 243-255, United Nations 2006).

Having thus sensed that attempts would be made to free Savarkar, the police handcuffed Savarkar when he was brought to the Court for the last time and deployed heavy security.

The final arrest warrant was issued on 21 June 1910 by Winston Churchill and the decision to extradite Savarkar to India to stand trial was finalized.  Detective-Inspector Edward Parker of Scotland Yard, Deputy Superintendent C.I.D. Charles John Power and the two native escorts were to accompany Savarkar on the Peninsular and Orient Steam Navigation Company’s passenger liner Morea that was built for long distance mail service (It was hence called RMS for Royal Mail Ship or SS for Steamship Morea).  Savarkar wrote a final letter titled ‘Farewell’ to his comrades.  The four-paragraph letter is an example of poetic prose! “In order to prevent any demonstrations the greatest care was taken to keep the movements of the prisoner secret.  Savarkar was removed from Brixton Prison on Thursday (30 June 1910) evening and lodged in a cell in Cannon Row Police Station. On the following afternoon he was taken by Detective-Inspector Parker and two officers of the Indian Police to Westminster Pier, which is only about 200 yards from the police station. Here the party embarked in a small steam launch and was taken down the river Tilbury, where the P. and O. linerMorea was lying out in the river. The Morea sailed during the afternoon, with Savarkar and the police officials on board.” (Gaelic American, New York, 23 July 1910)

R.M.S. Morea: Launched in 1908, the Morea (164.53 m length, 18.65 m breadth and 7.53 m in depth) was considered the best-looking liner of her class. She had been fitted with the Marconi system of wireless telegraphy in 1909.  As Savarkar was prisoner, he was given a second class cabin and European clothes to wear.  As Power was in charge of his security, he too had been given second class.  Though Edward Parker of the Scotland Yard was entitled to a first class, he preferred to tr

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avel with Power by second class. Two deck passages had been assigned to the two native escorts.  Thus, Savarkar, Power and Parker shared a central second class cabin.  This cabin had no porthole and had four beds; Savarkar and Parker would sleep on the two beds below.  Power would sleep on the bed above that of Savarkar.  During meals, Parker and Power would sit on either side of Savarkar.  After meals, Savarkar would often take rest in his cabin for hours and would spend his time reading or sleeping.  He would usually retire at 9 p.m. Savarkar was free to visit any of the nine water closets (W.C. lavatories). The two native escorts would lay their beds on a platform outside the water closets. He would be taken on to the upper deck for exercise (walking).  Up to this time, he was not handcuffed.

Savarkar would often pretend to be asleep and then see how closely the accompanying police officers and guards were watching him.  He was careful not to seek information about passing ports lest it should arouse suspicion.  En route in the Bay of Biscay, the ocean became turbulent and passengers were thrown around.  Seizing this opportunity, Savarkar dashed himself against a porthole and measured it (Joshi V.S. Krantikallol, Marathi, Manorama Prakashan, Mumbai, 1985, p 375).  Its diameter was 12 inches. As per his measurements taken on 10 February 1911 as a ‘criminal’, Savarkar himself was five feet two and half inches in height, his chest circumference was 32 inches and collar size was 13 inches.  As Police Inspector Kennedy of Bombay Police was to remark later, ‘Mr. Power was intimately acquainted with the active movements and the lithe and slender physique of Indian natives!” (Sonpatki, ibid, p 97).  On 05 July 1910, the Morea reached Gibraltar but halted there only for 3-4 hours.  It was impossible for Savarkar to escape at that time.  After the Morea resumed her journey, her connecting rod broke down a short distance from Marseilles.  Under these circumstances, the Morea reached Marseilles at 10 am on 07 July 1910.  The need for repair work caused the Captain to dock her a little closer than normal to the coast.

A ” Commissaire ” of the French Police came on board the vessel shortly after her arrival at the port, and, in accordance with the orders of the Prefect, placed himself at the disposal of the Commander in respect of the watch to be kept; in consequence, this          ” Commissaire ” was put into communication with the British Police Officer who, with other Police Officers, was in charge of Savarkar (The Savarkar Case, ibid, p 254).  The French official did not say a word to Savarkar who could not speak French (Sonpatki, ibid, p 94).

Escape: Friday 08 July 1910!  Savarkar woke up at 6 am.  The ever alert Parker also got up.  Savarkar requested that he be taken to the lavatory.  Parker would keep his watch on the table between their beds.  He asked Savarkar the time. Savarkar replied it was 6.15.  Parker asked Savarkar to wait for some time.   Savarkar repeated his request at 6.30.  It must be noted that Savarkar betrayed no sign of excitement and did not press Parker when the latter had asked him to wait.  Who can imagine the turbulence raging in Savarkar’s mind at that time?  Parker now responded to Savarkar’s request.  Savarkar now wore his dressing gown over his night dress.  John Power was fast asleep all this while.  Seeing Savarkar and Parker approach the lavatory, the two native guards got a start.  They started hurriedly changing into their uniform.  By this time, Savarkar had already entered W.C. number 2.  Parker also relieved himself and asked Amarsingh and Muhammad Sadiq to keep a watch on Savarkar while he himself went back to his cabin.  Savarkar divested himself of his dressing gown and put it over the glass window on the door of the water closet.  He latched the door and started to crawl through the porthole.  Outside, the two guards were becoming restless. Amarsingh stood on the ledge and tried to look over the top of the door.  Muhammad Sadiq went on his knees and tried to peer from below.  When they realized that Savarkar was trying to escape, they tried to break open the door but only succeeded in opening the glass.  Their effort was in vain.  Savarkar had escaped.  Savarkar swam a short distance of around 10-12 feet and climbed up the quay wall (vertical distance of some 9 ft) by riding on rings fixed to the quay (Sonpatki, ibid, pp 97-98).  Later accounts that gunshots were fired at Savarkar or that he was swimming nude or swam for several miles have no factual basis.   The importance of Savarkar’s escape does not lie in the duration or the distance he swam.  Savarkar’s greatness lies in the fact that he courted arrest to prove his bravery and leadership but once that was done, he made a laughing stock of the British Government in trying to escape.  In seeking asylum on French soil, he was challenging the law-abiding credentials of the British Government in the international arena!

Savarkar having succeeded in effecting his escape, swam ashore and began to run; he was arrested by a brigadier (Pasky) of the French maritime gendarmerie and taken back to the vessel. Three persons, who had come ashore from the vessel, assisted the brigadier in taking the fugitive back.  from the statements made by the French brigadier to the Police at Marseilles, it appears: that he saw the fugitive, who was almost naked, get out of a porthole of the steamer, throw himself into the sea and swim to the quay; that at the same moment some persons from the ship, who were shouting and gesticulating, rushed over the bridge leading to the shore, in order to pursue him; that a number of people on the quay commenced to shout ” Arrêtez-le “; that the brigadier at once went in pursuit of the fugitive and, coming up to him after running about five hundred metres, arrested him… the brigadier declares that he was altogether unaware of the identity of the person with whom he was dealing, that he only thought that the man who was escaping was one of the crew, who had possibly committed an offence on board the vessel…with regard to the assistance afforded him by one of the crew and two Indian policemen, it appears from the explanations given on this point, that these men came up after the arrest of Savarkar, and that their intervention was only auxiliary to the action of the brigadier. The brigadier had seized Savarkar by one arm for the purpose of taking him back to the ship, and the prisoner went peaceably with him. The brigadier, assisted by the above mentioned persons, did not relax his hold, till he reached the half deck of the vessel.  The brigadier said that he did not know English.  From what has been stated, it would appear that the incident did not occupy more than a few minutes” (The Savarkar Case, ibid, pp 253-254).

Reporting on the subsequent events, Gaelic American (30 July 1910) reports, “It appears that when his escape was discovered cries of “Voleur! Voleur!” (Thief! Thief!) were raised by the British police who set out in chase. This caused all the French police to join in and the prisoner was finally caught after a hard run that quite exhausted him…After capture by the French police, the Quartermaster of the Marseilles Maritime Police, instead of taking him to the Prefecture to be dealt with according to International usage, he having been captured by foreign police on French soil, allowed him to be taken away on board the British steamer. The matter was taken up by his friends in Paris, and is now under consideration of the French government, in whose hands they have left it. We are informed that the French police received “gratification” from the British Consul of Marseilles for acting as they did.”

The entire incident took about ten minutes.  In fact when Pasky, Amarsingh and Muhammad Sadiq came with the captured Savarkar back to the cabin on the Morea, Parker was busy shaving and Power was still fast asleep!

Attempt to hush up: The sensational event remained hushed up for three full days till finally it was dismissed in a few lines in the Paris edition of the Daily Mail of 11 July 1910.  There was a tremendous furore in the French press and the French Socialist circles.  The Socialist paper L’Humanite at once published a forceful article on July 12 and passed the following strictures on the French authorities in Marseilles:  “This abominable violation of the right of asylum was effected in absolute secrecy; had it not been for a telegram published yesterday (July 11th) in the Paris Daily Mail we should still have been in ignorance of the incident.  But it is quite impossible that the matter can be allowed to rest here.  In delivering up a political refugee the Marseilles authorities – admitting that they had acted on their own initiative – have committed an outrage of which account will most assuredly be demanded and in respect of which the sanction of the State itself is necessary.”  French national papers of other parties –L’Eclaire Le Temps, Le Matin – presently joined L’Humanite in declaring the arrest of Savarkar on French soil to be an international scandal and a violation of the right of asylum (Yajnik, ibid, pp 288-289).

International outcry: Savarkar’s extraordinary heroism at Marseilles was applauded by the impartial press of the world.  His whole career, his patriotic exploits in India and England were recounted at great length everywhere.  The Indian circles in Paris were naturally stirred into great ferment.  The historic Indian trio in Paris – Shyamji, Ranaji and Madam Cama –quickly assembled together and spent days discussing the subject with Monsieur Jaures, the great Socialist leader, Frédéric Jean Laurent Longuet (grandson of Karl Marx) and other influential French politicians.  They were one and all quickly convinced of the very serious error committed by the Marseilles police and resolved to compel the French Government to officially demand the return of Savarkar to the free soil of France. (Yajnik, ibid, p 289)

The Gaelic American (13 August 1910) summarizes the mood thus, “The developments in the case of the Hindu student, Savarkar, who escaped from the custody of his police escort on board the British steamer Morea, while the vessel was lying in dock at Marseilles, France, on her way to India, have raised the matter of his unauthorized restitution by a sergeant of gendarmes to the British police, to the status of an international question. This was admitted in the British House of Commons on July 21 by the Foreign Secretary, Edward Grey, who, in reply to a question by a member, admitted that the British Government had been “approached” by the French Government on the subject, but that he could not make any statement till the facts and points involved had been considered.

“Later information says that the French press has taken the matter up very warmly, and, from the Socialist paper, L’Humanite, to the highly conservative Journal des Debate, has expressed the opinion that Savarkar must be returned to France and set at liberty. “This,” the latter paper says emphatically, “is necessary to the credit of Great Britain, which was the first of all the European States to offer shelter to political refugees.” The Siecle which, with the Temps, has generally condemned British action in Egypt and in India, whilst encouraging the leading Nationalist of both nations, comes to the same conclusion, but in continuing its comments says that the Savarkar affair is a sharp reminder of the international importance of the Indian question. It proceeds: In Europe we do not look upon things from quite the same point of view as in England or in India. We do not ask when it may be that the Hindus may defeat Great Britain, but we attempt to discover whether four or five years when the superiority of the British navy over that of Germany will have become slight, India may not be able to keep fully occupied the whole of the expeditionary force of which Mr. Haldene speaks, so that it would be difficult to guarantee the defence of British territory, and radically impossible for the British army to intervene on the continent…For the safety of the British domination in India we must wish for something else than pitiless repression. The policy of the “big stick” is good only for the nations without ideals, for a tyranny can last only so long as it creates victims.

“The Éclair speaks of British rule in India being maintained by brutal repression, summary convictions and executions, and goes on to say: We may disapprove of such employment of force: it is not our business to prevent it. But we must not afford help to Britain in her police persecution. Now, unhappily, it seems a mistake has been made in recent affair, that of the arrest on French territory of a Hindu Nationalist, Mr. Savarkar…..We gather from the various statements relative to the affair that the English detectives seeing Savarkar swimming away in the harbour, cried out, “Thief!” At the refitting dock a sergeant of the maritime gendarmerie arrested him and gave him back to the detectives when he should have handed him over to the Special Commissary of the Port.

“The sergeant of the gendarme in question committed a grave error; he is not in the service of foreign detectives; and it is inadmissible that on a false accusation of theft, a French official should authorize the extradition of a foreigner, above all when it concerns someone who is persecuted for his political opinions, and whose sole crime is that he desires his country to free itself from the tyranny of England.

“The Temps, which may be regarded as the leading paper in Paris if not also in France, after some hesitation, was obliged to admit that in surrendering Savarkar to his pursuers, the French police had violated the Right of Asylum, attributing their action at the same time to ignorance. The Socialist paper, L’Humanite, while severely criticizing this qualifying of the police error, expresses its satisfaction that the Temps and itself stand on the same ground on the question of the Right of Asylum.

“The action of the French Government in the matter seems to have been of such a character that the British Government, much as it would like to gratify its savage instincts, will feel compelled to accede to the French demands, if only to prevent a breach in the entente, which is one of England’s props in international affairs.

“In concluding we cannot omit to notice the suppression of all reference to this Savarkar affair in New York papers. It almost looks as if the word had gone out from the of the Hebrew Under Secretary for India in London to the American press agencies and the London correspondents of American papers to shut down this incident.”

Even The Nation, London was constrained to observe, “The French democracy, which has always defended Russian refugees against the continual machinations of its great ally, is not at all disposed to be more complaisant towards themselves, partly from a genuine love of liberty, partly form a proper national pride, partly also from a profound distrust of the French police, the advanced parties in France will fight this case with all the passion and vivacity which they favourably bring to bear on simple human issues. We must be prepared, if we insist on refusing to surrender Savarkar, to see ourselves pilloried day by day in the friendly French press. That would be no argument for yielding if we were right; but most clearly we are in the wrong” (Gaelic American, 03 September 1910)

Farce of International Arbitration: The French Government did not lose much time informally –though somewhat reluctantly –demanding the return of Savarkar from the British Government.  Whitehall on the other side first tried to make light of the demand, bandied about specious arguments and tried to make of it a purely domestic issue with which France had no right to interfere.  When the French Government called Britain’s bluff, the latter was compelled to agree to refer the question to the arbitration of the Hague Tribunal (Yajnik, ibid, p 289).  Pending the decision, no sentence passed upon Savarkar was to have any effect beyond his retention in custody. The Special Tribunal at Bombay decided that the jurisdiction of the Indian Court to try Savarkar was not affected by any questions of the legality of his re-arrest at the French port.

“By an agreement dated the 25th October 1910, the Government of the French Republic and the Government of His Britannic Majesty agreed to submit to Arbitration the questions of fact and law raised by the arrest and restoration to the mail-steamer              “ Morea” at Marseilles, on the 8th July 1910, of the British Indian SAVARKAR, who had escaped from that vessel where he was in custody; and the demand made by the Government of the French Republic for the restitution of SAVARKAR ; the Arbitral Tribunal has been called upon to decide the following question: Should VINAYAK DAMODAR SAVARKAR, in conformity with the rules of international law, be restored or not be restored by His Britannic Majesty’s Government to the Government of the French Republic?” (The Savarkar Case, ibid, p 251).  The Arbitral Tribunal was composed of five arbitrators chosen from the members of the Permanent Court at The Hague. The two Contracting Parties were to settle the composition of the Tribunal. Each of them could choose as arbitrator one of their nationals. The tribunal consisted of five members, one each from Belgium, England, France, Norway and Holland.   The sessions began on 14 February 1911, and ended 17 February 1911, the decision being rendered 24 February 1911.

The decision of the tribunal was a foregone conclusion.  As Gaelic American (25 March 1911) remarked, “What chance a political prisoner has before the Hague Tribunal of Arbitration when the parties in interest have a friendly alliance is exemplified in the case of Vinayak Savarkar. The majority of the court was favourable to Great Britain and it was unanimously decided that France had no claim on the prisoner.”  The Hague Tribunal observed, “while admitting that an irregularity was committed by the arrest of Savarkar, and by his being handed over to the British Police, there is no rule of International Law imposing, in circumstances such as those which have been set out above, any obligation on the Power which has in its custody a prisoner, to restore him because of a mistake committed by the foreign agent who delivered him up to that Power.”  The Tribunal concluded, “The Arbitral Tribunal decides that the Government of His Britannic Majesty is not required to restore the said Vinayak Damodar Savarkar to the Government of the French Republic” (The Savarkar Case, ibid, p 255).

The actions of the French make it clear that they were very aware of the Asylum law. They sent an official on board to prevent Savarkar’s escape. For after escape, it was going to be too late. That is why ashore the police had no idea of Savarkar’s presence.

Also, where were the preparations that the French superior said he would make? The simple fact is that he could not make any without breaking the International Law.

Also, the French official aboard should have asked for Savarkar’s return immediately, for he certainly knew the truth—why didn’t he? Why did he not contact the police ashore? Why did the tribunal not bring it up? If the French government knew (according to the telegrams) of Savarkar’s presence on the Morea and likely escape plan, they should have had protection for him when he touched the shore. So it seems the French Government was not altogether innocent when it returned Savarkar to the ship. The whole thing was quite orchestrated.

Re-arrest: The Gaelic American (27 August 1910) reported,The Indian political refugee who escaped from the steamer Morea in Marseilles harbour last month, and was illegally restored to his English escort by a French Gendarmerie official, arrived at Bombay on the morning of July 22 on the steamer Salsette. The prisoner was landed at the Government dockyard and driven in a taxi-cab to the Victoria Terminus, where he was placed in a prisoner’s third-class carriage attached to the Delhi Express Mail. The train reached Nasik at noon, where Savarkar was to be detained pending trail by the Special Tribunal on a charge of abetment of murder. The arrangements made for Savarkar’s landing and his dispatch to Nasik were kept strictly secret. The intention of the British Government is apparently to railroad the trial and conviction while the demand of the French Government for his surrender is being held up.”

The failed escape attempt by Savarkar at Marseilles can only be compared to Shivaji’s successful flight from Agra.  While Shivaji went on to become a sovereign Hindu king, Savarkar went on to face imprisonment and hardship both in British and free India.  Despite attempts by vested interests to suppress Savarkar’s name and fame, like Shivaji, he shall continue to rule over Hindu hearts.  Further, his action at Marseilles shall be cherished by all freedom-loving people throughout the world. ”

Alas , his sacrifices were continuously ignored and Congress government of Maharashtra even didn’t deem it proper to name Bandra-Worli sea link after him.


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