Understanding Tamil Nadu – [ 3 ]


DSC01182

VAITHEESWARAN KOIL – TAMIL NADU – INDIA           DECEMBER 25 , 2012           10.55 P.M.

The political state of Tamil Nadu in India was...

The political state of Tamil Nadu in India was created in 1969 when erstwhile Madras State was renamed (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

After going through my two previous blogs on ” Understanding Tamil Nadu ” , I think that E. V. Ramasamy Naicker ” Periyar ” and his various steps , which he took during his movements , would be properly understood out of Tamil Nadu also . His rationalism , espousal of self-respect , advocacy for women rights and eradication of caste system is epoch – making and has everlasting effect on Tamil people and Tamil Nadu .

English: http://www.periyarkural.com

A Young E. V. Ramasamy Naicker Periyar (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

His works among weaker sections of Tamil Nadu , his efforts for the uplifting of lower castes , long subjugated by Brahmins , would be always held in high esteem and would be considered exemplary .

His untiring efforts for the uplifting of women bears indelible marks on the social psyche of Tamil society . Widow marriage , in my opinion , is his most colossal work .

He tirelessly worked for the eradication of child marriage . He espoused inter – caste marriages and opened many educational institutions for the weaker section of society .

It is not for nothing that UNESCO citation in 1970 described Periyar as ” the prophet of the new age  , the Socrates of South East Asia , father of social reform movement and arch enemy of ignorance , superstitions , meaningless customs and base manners .”

His blind opposition of HINDI , HINDU , HINDUSTAN somewhat darkens his other exemplary and far – reaching social works . It is this aspect of his personality and work that brings suspicion and doubt in the minds of large sections of North India . To understand Tamil Nadu better , let us take all the three causes of Periyar , one by one .

HINDI : I closely followed politics since my Allahabad days . I went to Allahabad in 1967 and it was the year when anti – Hindi agitation started in Tamil Nadu . I read many wicked stories published in the Hindi newspapers and magazines of those days . One story said that if you are lost and approach a Tamil speaking person for asking the right route , you will be unable to get an answer if you ask in Hindi . Even if  a Tamil speaking person knows Hindi , he won’t answer and will go away saying ” HINDI ILLAI ” .

I found this story false during my recent forays in the hinterlands of Tamil Nadu . If I approach a person for asking something and even if I ask the question in Hindi , I was not spurned . I get the answer in broken Hindi and that too with smiling face . Sometimes if the person genuinely doesn’t know Hindi , instead of running away , he tries to explain everything in fluent Tamil with lots of hand movements and facial expressions .

If Tamil people think that Tamil is an ancient language and it is older than Hindi , I think that we have to respect the sentiment . Tamil is used in every sphere of Tamil Nadu and you will hardly find signboards in Hindi but in my opinion that is absolutely fine . A particular language should be respected and should be used in the land of its origin . That’s the basis for the formation of linguistic states , which has been agreed by all the political parties .

HINDU : E. V. Ramasamy Naicker ” Periyar ” was atheist for sure . Through his organization Dravid Kazhagam , he started denouncing Hinduism . It started with denunciation of Iyers and Iyengars , Brahmins of Tamil Nadu and culminated in processions , where idols of Ram , Sita and Lakshman were garlanded with slippers .

I can understand his dislike for Brahmins . I am willing to fathom his opposition of Sanskrit language also . I am willing to accept his credo of atheism . We in India have accepted Charvak , the first atheist , as a saint . But you can’t force your belief of not believing in religion on others .

He organized a procession to the Marina beach in 1956 , to burn pictures of Rama , the God . His followers broke idols in the temples , banished Brahmins from the every section of tamil society and organized Ravan Leelas .

But in my recent visits to the state , I found to my surprise that in every temple of Tamil Nadu  a serpentine queue of devotees are visible . It has to be seen to be believed . People come in very large numbers and they pray and worship . Temples are well maintained in Tamil Nadu and I can vouch that Hinduism is thriving in the state much vigorously . Dravid Kazhagam is now a smaller force and Tamil Nadu is as religious as any part of India . In following the tenets of Hinduism they are much ahead and dogmatically strict . On EKADASHI , I found people thronging the temples . I am yet to see same enthusiasm on EKADASHI in North India . Moreover the Tamil Nadu state emblem tells it in a more fitting way .

English: Emblem of the State Government of Tam...

Emblem of the State Government of Tamil Nadu used by the state government for public notices in the press and for publicity purposes. The emblem of India is the image used on the India Wikipedia article. தமிழ்: தமிழ் நாடு அரசின் சின்னம். (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Burning effigies of Bhagawan Ram and other Hindu Gods and the days of celebrating Ravan Leelas are over . Atheism can be accepted , as Charvak was accepted in olden times and he was even called a RISHI .

HINDUSTAN : One of the most disturbing legacy of Periyar was to give a call for Dravid Nadu . He wanted to unite all the four provinces of South India and wanted this entity to be an independent Dravid Nadu .

But majority of his supporters revolted against this demand . In the leadership of C. N. Annadurai , they formed Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam and fought elections . Since 1965 either D.M.K. or A.I.A.D.M.K. rules the state and the demand of so-called Dravid Nadu is thrown somewhere in the trash bins of history .

But demand for separation from India is there in Jammu & Kashmir and all the provinces of North East India . They are more palpable . In fact these provinces are waging armed struggle against the nation . Then why to blame only Tamil Nadu ? There was just a demand and that too by just one organization , Dravid Kazhagam . And today Dravid Kazhagam is not a major force .

A very interesting fact of Tamil Nadu and Dravid politics is that Periyar was himself a Kannada speaking Kannadiga . One of the most successful chief ministers of Tamil Nadu , M. G. Ramachandran was a Kandy , Sri Lanka born and Malayalam speaking actor turned politician . current chief minister Miss Jayalalithaa Jayaram is also a Kannadiga and the irony of the situation is that she is a Brahmin . And she speaks fluent Hindi . Present day superstar Rajanikant , incidentally , is a Maharashtrian .

English: , the Chief Minister of , India.

Jayalalitha , the current Chief Minister of , Tamil Nadu (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

So the fort of atheism and anti Hindi these days is held by Muthuvel Karunanidhi only . But even his family members have changed . M. K. Stalin and Kannimozhi are not that dogmatic .

English: K. Karunanidhi, Chief Minister of Tam...

K. Karunanidhi, the ex Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

So I am stating with all my knowledge accumulated during this visit that Tamil Nadu is changing . Or it has already changed ?

After my return , I would love to share these findings with all the current students of my acting institute Vidur’s Kreating Charakters .

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.kreatingcharakters.net

www.vidurfilms.com

www.youtube.com/ividur

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

Understanding Tamil Nadu – [ 1 ]


DSC01182

VAITHEESWARAN KOIL – TAMIL NADU – INDIA           DECEMBER 23 , 2012           11.55 P.M.

When I landed at Chennai Airport on December 21 , 2012 , it marked my 3rd visit to the Southern metropolis . On December 22 , 2012 , when I drove to Vaitheeswaran Koil in the morning , it marked my 2nd visit to the hinterlands of Tamil Nadu .

The political state of Tamil Nadu in India was...

The political state of Tamil Nadu in India was created in 1969 when erstwhile Madras State was renamed (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

People of my generation always view Tamil Nadu and Tamil people through the prism , which was created in 1967 , when the first Dravidian government was formed in Tamil Nadu under the leadership of C. N. Annadurai .

But if you want to understand Dravid Movement of Tamil Nadu , you have to study the history of Self Respect Movement and Justice Party stablished by E. V. Ramasamy Naicker a.k.a. Periyar . It all started in 1925 , much before 1967 , when Annadurai led D.M.K. [ Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam ] formed the first non – Congress government in Tamil Nadu .

In the history of India , 1925 seems to be a very unique year . In the Tamil Nadu E. V. Ramasamy Naicker ” Periyar ” started his Self Respect Movement and in the same year in Nagpur Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar started R.S.S. [ Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh ] . Periyar’s movement is considered separatist and anti national by many and Dr. Hedgewar’s movement is perceived ultra nationalist by the majority . But it is uncanny that both the movements were started in 1925 .

English: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Periyar E.V. Ram...

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on 06-Jan-1940 at Jinnah’s residence in Bombay. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Dr. Hedgewar

Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar , Founder of R.S.S. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It is said that Periyar was peeved by the superiority of Brahmins and their dominance in all the departments and strata of Tamil culture and life . He started this movement called Sel Respect and started espousing the cause of non – Brahmin castes of Tamil Nadu . He started breaking idols in the temple , advocated atheism , despised JANEU , the sacred thread and finally gave a call for the boycott of Brahmin priests in the marriages . His espousal of Self Respect Marriage had far – reaching repercussions and he became quite unpopular in rest of the country . His anti – Brahmin crusades drew wide – spread indignation and his opposition of Hindu deity worship was considered as anti Hindu and finally anti India .

Both the Tamilian parties ; Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam [ DMK ] and All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam [ AIADMK ] owe their existence to E. V. Ramasamy Naicker ” Periyar ” and his movement . And thus atheism and anti North India and anti Hindi credo became their life lines . And when DMK came to power in 1967 , Anna Durai accepted many things which were espoused by Periyar . Thus in the rest of India people became suspicious and majority started disliking DMK and it anti Hindi , anti God and anti North India policies .

I was definitely misguided by this prism , which I got while studying in Allahabad from 1967 to 1974 . My recent visits have changed my perception of Tamil Nadu , Tamil people and Tamil politics of Dravidian parties .

I will complete this ” Understanding Tamil Nadu ” series in my next blog and would like to share it with all the current students of my acting academy Vidur’s Kreating Charakters  after my return from Tamil Nadu .

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.kreatingcharakters.net

www.vidurfilms.com

www.youtube.com/ividur

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

50 Years of Cuban Missile Crisis


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           OCTOBER 30, 2012           00.45 A.M.

Year 1962 in general and October 1962 in particular is permanently etched and engraved in my memory for two historical events . First is Chinese invasion of India and the second one is Cuban Missile Crisis .

I was 10 years old boy living in Deoria , Uttar Pradesh . My adolescent mind was getting awakened to the happenings of the world . I was curious . I was eager to gather knowledge . I was fascinated by the twists and turns of history . And these two epoch – making chapters of history opened in front of my eyes . I will write a separate blog about Chinese Invasion of India . Let me concentrate here on Cuban Missile Crisis .

 

U.S. reconnaissance photograph of soviet missi...

U.S. reconnaissance photograph of soviet missile sites on Cuba, taken from a Lockheed U-2 spy plane following the Cuban missile crisis. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

English: CIA reference photograph of Soviet me...

CIA reference photograph of Soviet medium-range ballistic missile (SS-4 in U.S. documents, R-12 in Soviet documents) in Red Square, Moscow. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Two main protagonists of the drama are now gone . J. F. Kennedy , the then President of U.S.A. got assassinated and Nikita Khrushchev , the then Premier of U.S.S.R. was deposed and subsequently died a natural death . But Comrade Fidel Castro , the then President of Cuba is still alive . His brother Raul Castro , who held parley with Nikita Khrushchev , is now President of Cuba . Let me unveil the incidents of the crisis , which might have escalated into World War III .

 

English: John F. Kennedy meeting with Nikita K...

John F. Kennedy meeting with Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

EXCOMM meeting at the White House Cabinet Room...

EXCOMM meeting at the White House Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis on October 29, 1962. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

The Soviet Union sending nuclear warheads to Cuba followed the 1958 deployment by the United States of Thor IRBMs in the UK (Project Emily) and Jupiter IRBMs to Italy and Turkey in 1961 – more than 100 US-built missiles having the capability to strike Moscow with nuclear warheads. After provocative political moves and the failed US attempts to overthrow the Cuban regime (Bay of Pigs, Operation Mongoose), in May 1962 Nikita Khrushchev proposed the idea of placing Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba to deter any future invasion attempt. During a meeting between Khrushchev and Raúl Castro that July, a secret agreement was reached and construction of several missile sites began in the late summer. These preparations were noticed, and on 14 October an US U-2 aircraft took several pictures clearly showing sites for medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles (MRBMs and IRBMs) under construction. These images were processed and presented on October 15, which marks the beginning of the 13-day crisis from the US perspective.

The United States considered attacking Cuba via air and sea, but decided on a military blockade instead, calling it a “quarantine” for legal and other reasons. The US announced that it would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba, demanded that the Soviets dismantle the missile bases already under construction or completed, and return all offensive weapons to the USSR. The Kennedy administration held only a slim hope that the Kremlin would agree to their demands, and expected a military confrontation.

On the Soviet side, Premier Nikita Khrushchev wrote in a letter from October 24, 1962 to President John F. Kennedy that his blockade of “navigation in international waters and air space” constituted “an act of aggression propelling humankind into the abyss of a world nuclear-missile war”.However, in secret back-channel communications the President and Premier initiated a proposal to resolve the crisis. While this was taking place, several Soviet ships attempted to run the blockade, increasing tensions to the point that orders to US Navy ships to fire warning shots and then open fire were sent out. On 27 October a U-2 was shot down by a Soviet missile crew, an action that could have resulted in immediate retaliation from the Kennedy crisis cabinet, according to Secretary of Defense McNamara‘s later testimony. However, in the event itself, Kennedy stayed his hand and the negotiations continued.

 

English: The engine of Lockheed U-2 which has ...

The engine of Lockheed U-2 which has been brought down above Cuba in Museum of the Revolution in Havana (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

English: Nikita Kruschev letter to President K...

Nikita Kruschev letter to President Kennedy stating that the Cuban Missile Crisis quarantine “constitute[s] an act of aggression propelling humankind into the abyss of a world nuclear-missile war.” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The confrontation ended on October 28, 1962,when Kennedy and United Nations Secretary-General U Thant reached an agreement with Khrushchev. Publicly, the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, subject to United Nations verification, in exchange for an US public declaration and agreement never to invade Cuba. Secretly, the US agreed that it would dismantle all US-built Jupiter IRBMs deployed in Turkey and Italy.

 

English: Adlai Stevenson II shows aerial photo...

Adlai Stevenson II shows aerial photos of Russian missiles in Cuba to the United Nations Security Council in the presence of USSR ambassador Valerian Zorin. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

I am quoting the events of the crisis from Wikipedia . Because , though I vividly remember the crisis but day-to-day events in chronological order have been almost obfuscated from my memory .

While I was sitting in the office of my acting institute Vidur’s Kreating Charakters , I suddenly remembered those fateful days and decided to write a blog on the topic in the night .

I still wonder , what would have been fate of the world in general and India in particular , had the crisis been not diffused in 1962 ?

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.kreatingcharakters.net

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

25 Years of Statehood of Arunachal Pradesh


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           SEPTEMBER 29 , 2012           10.45 P.M.

During my childhood , I had known a part my country , which was called NEFA . It came to national prominence during the India – China War of 1962 . Nathu La Pass and NEFA [ North East Frontier Agency ] became household names and our concern for this far off and neglected part of India was so great that we felt that we all are resident of NEFA . This erstwhile NEFA is now known as Arunachal Pradesh .

English: A Locator map of North East Frontier ...

A Locator map of North East Frontier Agency in 1961. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Before India – China war , I used to know only one province of North East India and it was Assam . Assam was a huge state of India in 1950 . Barring Manipur and Tripura , all the other provinces of present day North East India including NEFA were part of Assam . Map posted below bears testimony to this .

Political boundary of Assam in the 1950s.

Map of Assam in 1950

During British era this whole region was rules as a part of Bengal Presidency . Province of Assam came into being in 1874 . NEFA came into being in 1955 , though it was part of Assam .  It ceases to exist now . NEFA is now re-christened as Arunachal Pradesh and came into being on February 20 , 1987 as a state of India . Itanagar is the state capital .

Map of India showing location of Arunachal Pradesh

Location of Arunachal Pradesh in the Map of India

ITANAGAR ARUNACHAL PRADESH

Itanagar – Capital of Arunachal Pradesh

So in a nutshell from 1954 to 1972 NEFA was part of Assam . On January 20 , 1972 it was separated from Assam and became Union Territory . On February 20 , 1987  it became a state of India . So it completed 33 years as Union Territory and it now completes 25 years as a state .

Present day Arunachal Pradesh is divided into 17 districts for administrative purposes .

English: Tawang Town with monastery in backgro...

Tawang Town with The Monastery

Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh is the Buddhist religious place and is the birth place of HH 6th Dalai Lama .

The birthplace of the 6th Dalai Lama (Urgellin...

The Birthplace of the 6th Dalai Lama

Simla Agreement between British and Tibet in 1913 – 1914 established the boundary line between present day Arunachal Pradesh of India and Tibet . Sir Henry MacMohan drew up 890 km long MacMohan Line as the border between British India and Outer Tibet . Chinese representative had no problem at that time but now China refuses to accept MacMohan Line and claims all of Arunachal Pradesh as her own province .

 

English: Map of the British Indian Empire from...

Map of the British Indian Empire from Imperial Gazetteer of India (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

The Survey of India had published a map in 1937 showing MacMohan Line as the official boundary . Even if you try to forget all the mythological links of present day Arunachal Pradesh with Mahabharat and it being the abode of MahaRishi Parashuram and it being the mythical kingdom of Kundinpur , which belonged to Rukmini’s father and it being the place , where Krishna Bhagwan came and married Rukmini , still the fact remains that from 1937 to 2012 , Arunachal Pradesh has 75 years of existence with India . If you consider the signing of Simla Accord between British India and Tibet in 1913 – 1914 , then this existence extends to 99 years .

In February 2012 , Arunachal Pradesh completed 25 years as a province of India . Irrespective of what China says , Arunachal has its links with India since Mahabharat days . And God willing next year Arunachal Pradesh will complete 100 years of its existence with India .

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.kreatingcharakters.net

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

New Light on Nehru , Edwina & Partition of India


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           AUGUST 16 , 2012           11.55 P.M.
This is not my original blog . I have re-tweeted and re – arranged these tweets from the twitter handle of Mr. Kiran Kumar S. He is a nationalist thinker from Bengaluru and tweets frequently. You can visit his twitter handle @KiranKS or his website http://www.kiranasis.blogspot.com for more information about him .
Louis (1900-1979) and Edwina (1901-1960) Mounb...

Louis (1900-1979) and Edwina (1901-1960) Mounbatten (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

These tweets throw more light on the intriguing and clandestine relationship of Jawahar Lal Nehru and Edwina Mountbatten . Mr. Kiran Kumar S. has extensively quoted from a Kannada book . Name of the book : “Nehru Parade Sariyitu”. Feb 2006; Avani Publishers; By Chakravarthy Sulibele ; No English translation of this book is available yet . People , who know Kannada can refer to the original book for more precise information about this relationship , which overshadowed a very crucial phase of our nation and affected the happenings  during the partition and vivisection of this nation into Indiaand Pakistan . These tweets give you an idea about that fatal attraction .

1) Will tweet some shocking facts about what happened between 1946 and 1950, with focus on #Nehru -From Chakravarthy Sulibele’s Kannada book


2) First & foremost, India (and Pak/BD) did NOT become fully independent on 15 Aug 1947 (Pak 14). Just got “Dominion” status under the Queen

3) After 15 Aug 1947, Raja Gopalachari the Governor General, Nehru the PM & all 3 armed forces were serving the Queen Elizabeth as empress.

4) British India faced a rebellion on 1946 Feb 18, from Indian navy ship Talwar. Soon air force rebelled. Bose’s INA engineered these.

5) British realized in Feb 1946 that they had to leave India. But, their businessmen had invested 1000s of crores in India. Had to take back

6) British needed years to repatriate investment,so wanted a “dominion” India. Congress totally opposed it right from 1929 Lahore convention

7) British wanted – Dominion India for 3-4 yrs; Create Pakistan as reward for Jinnah’s WW2 support; checkmate Gandhi who opposed partition.

8) Per Janelle Morgan’s book, Edwina Mountbatten, page 378, British PM Atlee decided to use the “unusual lady” Edwina to get Dominion India.

9) Reasons British PM Atlee picked Mountbatten couple were-> Spies informed Nehru’s womanizing weakness, Louis M was OK with wife’s affairs.

10) Per Andrew Robert’s Eminent Churchillian book, page 58, Edwina had numerous affairs – Hugh, Bunny, Mike, Larry etc. Husband WAS OK.

11) Edwina was a rich woman. She inherited £20,000 when Louis was making mere £610 in Navy as salary. But Louis was well connected with top.

12) Per Richard Hugh’s Mountbatten book, page 96, Mountbatten couple struck a deal to let Edwina’s sex adventures, without any divorce.

13) 1 month after Feb 1946 INA inspired revolt of Indian Navy, Britain sent Nehru to Singapore to meet Mountbattens. He got royal welcome.

14) Per Sarvepalli Gopal’s J Nehru book part 1, page 710, Mountbatten couple welcomed Nehru in Singapore as tho’ he was a future PM. #Trap

15) Per Stanley Welford’s Nehru book page 361, Edwina ensured with a “fall”, that Nehru was in “love at 1st sight”. Indira was a witness!

16) The effect of Edwina was so quick that Nehru agreed NOT to attend a ceremony in Singapore to honour Azad Hind Fouz’s memorial 😦

17) Per Stanley Wolpert’s Nehru book, page 377, Nehru used to stay in Edwina’s rooms whenever he traveled to London. Hotel Door Chester.

18) Per Collin & Lapiere’s Freedom at Midnight, pg 8, Nehru returned favour by asking for L Mountbatten as India’s Viceroy via Krishna Menon

19) Per Richard Hugh’s Mountbatten book, pg 373, Edwina’s effect made Nehru break 26 Jan 1930’s Congress promise. Agreed to Dominion Status.

20) Collin & Lapierre’s Freedom at Midnight, pg 150: Mountbatten went to London on 18 May 1947. Churchill, Opp leader smiled at trapped Nehru

21) Nehru did NOT take Congress Working Committee’s suggestion bef agreeing to partition & Dominion status. Ignored Maulana Azad, Cong Prez!

22) Millions of Hindus/Sikhs on Pak side & Muslims on India side died. Mega tragedy happened due to Nehru issuing Partition acceptance letter

23) For the outstanding achievement in making India agree to partition & dominion status, Edwina got GBE and Louis, Earl awards/titles!

24) {Final}. Edwina was truly a Vishakanya. She was used cleverly when British understood Nehru’s weakness. Result? Partition & bloodshed 😦

Source Kannada book name: “Nehru Parade Sariyitu”. Feb 2006; Avani Publishers; By Chakravarthy Sulibele; No Engl transl.

Louis (1900-1979) and Edwina (1901-1960) Mounb...

Louis (1900-1979) and Edwina (1901-1960) Mounbatten (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

 

Related articles

100th Year of Formation of Bihar


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           AUGUST 08, 2012         01. 15 A.M.

This year in 2012 Bihar is celebrating 100 years of its existence as a province of India . Before 1912 Bihar was included in the erstwhile Bengal Presidency of British Indian Empire .

But Bihar’s history is much older that the British Indian Empire and even the rule of Afghans and Mughals .

Ancient Bihar (which consisted of Anga, Videha/Mithila, Magadha and Vajji/Vrijji) was a centre of power , learning and culture in ancient and classical India . From Magadha arose India’s first and greatest empire , the Maurya empire as well as one of the world’s most widely adhered-to religions , Buddhism . Magadha empires , notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties , unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule . Its capital Patna , earlier known as Pataliputra, was an important centre of Indian civilization . Nalanda and Vikramshila were centres of learning established in the 5th and 8th century respectively in Bihar , and are counted amongst the oldest and truly international universities , where people from all over the world came to study. Bihar has distinction of giving the world its first democracy through Lichchivi Ganarajya [ modern-day Vaishali district ] during ancient era . Though today , for some , Vaishali is more associated with Aamrapali , than with democracy . But for lovers of history , Vaishali will always be known as the epicentre of the FIRST PARLIAMENT OF THE WORLD .

I am posting few maps , which amply make clear the importance of Bihar and its significant contribution to the cultural ethos of India . From the mythological Magadh of Jarasandh and Anga of Karna of Mahabharata era , to the Maurya period and Chankya era and to the Golden Age of Guptas , Bihar has seen it all .

The approximate extent of the Magadha Empire i...

The approximate extent of the Magadha Empire in the 5th century BC. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The ‘16 Great Nations’; Anga is the easternmos...

The ‘16 Great Nations’; Anga is the easternmost, south of Vrijji and east of Magadha (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under ...

The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chandragupta's empire when he founded it c. 32...

Chandragupta’s empire when he founded it c. 320 BCE, by the time he was about 20 years old. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chandragupta Maurya's empire in 305 BC after h...

Chandragupta Maurya’s empire in 305 BC after his conflict with Seleucus Nicator. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Maurya Empire after Bindusara's death 269.

The Maurya Empire after Bindusara’s death 269. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Ashoka the Great subdued Kalinga, during the K...

Ashoka the Great subdued Kalinga, during the Kalinga War circa 265 BC, and the southern kingdoms. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: A map of the Maurya Dynasty, showing ...

English: A map of the Maurya Dynasty, showing major cities, early Buddhist sites, Ashokan Edicts, etc. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Appr...

Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Gupta Empire. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Patliputra as a capital of Sunga Empire. Appro...

Patliputra as a capital of Sunga Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga Empire (circa 185 BCE). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

After the end of this glorious and ancient chapter and after the end of not so significant Afghan and Mughal era , East India Company conquered large parts of northern India and became the de – facto rulers . After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Orissa , [ now Odisha ] . The rich resources of fertile land , water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists , particularly the Dutch and British , in the 18th century . Bihar remained a part the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912 , when the province of Bihar and Orissa [ now Odisha ] was carved out as a separate province . Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March . In 1935 , certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate province of Orissa [ now Odisha ] .

Map of United Bihar

Map of United Bihar

In 2000 , Bihar was divided into two and North part of undivided Bihar became Bihar and the Southern part was carved as a separate province and is now known as Jharkhand .

Bihar of Present Day

Bihar of Present Day

After partition , present day Bihar is the 12th largest state of India in terms of geographical size and 3rd largest in population . Apart from Hindi , Bihar is the home of some of the dialects of Hindi , like ; Bhojpuri , Magadhi , Maithili , Angika and Vajjika . For administrative purposes Bihar is divided into 9 divisions and 38 districts .

Location of Bihar in India

Location of Bihar in India

After independence and under the rule of Chief Ministers like ; Krishna Sinha and Anugrah Narayan Sinha , Bihar for some time , basked in the old glory of Patliputra . But it suffered a lot during the rule of Congress in later years . During the 15 year rule of Lalu Prasad Yadav and his wife Rabdi Devi , Bihar reached at its nadir . Lawlessness and anarchy ruled supreme . Day time murders became order of the day . Ransom became a respectable business . Reputation of Chankya’s Bihar and Chandragupta Maurya’s Patliputra was massacred and mutilated by RJD’s Lalu Prasad Yadav . It was further defaced and defiled by his inefficient wife Rabdi Devi .

After all the turmoil and tribulations , Bihar finally rejected RJD of Lalu and elected BJP , JD [ U ] combine in 2005 . Bihar is now marching ahead under the NDA rule . After Gujarat , now it is the second fastest growing state of India .

I am happy that in the centenary year of its existence , Bihar is shedding its infamous and nefarious image and gaining international respectability and appreciation . Bharatiya Janata Party and Janata Dal [ United ] combine deserve kudos for that . Though it is still miles behind of other states but definitely it is moving ahead and moving fast . May this centenary year be the golden year of Bihar .

I am happy because I have my roots in Bihar . My forefathers originally hailed from the state and only later on they migrated to Uttar Pradesh .

[ Some facts and figures of Bihar have been taken from Wikipedia . I express my gratitude . ]

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

100 Years of Sa’adat Hasan Manto


 

 

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           August 02 , 2012           00.40 A.M.

This year is the Anniversary Year of so many historical and literary figures and luminaries of our generation . Anniversaries of various historical events are also being celebrated this year . These anniversary celebrations , as I remember , took momentum from 2010 . Or may be , since I was not into blogging , I never realized or became aware of their existence .

In 2010 we celebrated 2 anniversaries . They were ; 100 YEARS OF HISTORIC JUMP OF VEER SAVARKAR , and 150 YEARS OF TAGORE .

In 2011 there were 6 anniversaries . They were as varied as ; 40 YEARS OF VIJAY DIWAS & BIRTH OF BANGLADESH , 50 YEARS OF THE LIBERATION OF GOA , DAMAN & DIU , 100 YEARS OF OUR NATIONAL ANTHEM , 100 YEARS OF NEW DELHI , 150 YEARS OF MAHAMANA MALVIYA and 250YEARS OF THE 3RD BATTLE OF PANIPAT .

This year only half of 2012 is over and we have already celebrated 4 anniversaries . They are ; 60 YEARS OF CORONATION OF QUEEN ELIZABETH II , 150 YEARS OF THE 1ST CHRISTIAN SAINT OF INDIA , 150 YEARS OF SWAMI VIVEKANANDA and 200 YEARS OF CHARLES DICKENS .

Now I am writing about the 5th , 100 YEARS OF SA’ADAT HASAN MANTO .

8 more anniversaries are tempting me to write a blog on them . It comes to total 13 anniversaries in 2012 .

Quite early in my life , I was slowly introduced to Indian literature , then English literature and finally Russian and world literature . In Indian literature my first brush was with Bengali literature . Hindi literature came later and then came Urdu literature . Other Indian literature , translated in Hindi , came much later in my life .

Indian Books 3

Indian Books (Photo credit: Celeste33)

When I talk about Urdu literature , I must make a note that my first introduction was through the poetry . Shairi , as Urdu poetry is known , was my early fascination . HIND POCKET BOOKS came out with Hindi transliteration [ not translation ] of various works of Shairs or poets of Urdu . I bought them and became familiar with Urdu poetry and grew into a life long fan . I still remember many Urdu couplets or Sher by heart .

The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla (

The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla (“The language of the exalted camp”) written in Nasta’liq script. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Urdu prose came much later in my life . Kishan Chandar was the first Urdu novelist , whose works I read and admired . I have heard about Sa’adat Hasan Manto and his works during those days but I didn’t read him as he was despised by large number of people including my teachers and was vehemently criticized by the critics and intelligentsia .

English: manto in his middle age.

Sa’adat Hasan Manto in his middle age. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

So naturally I avoided reading him . In my mind he was akin to novelists like Kushwaha Kant and Ibn – e – Shafi B.A. Though hugely popular , these two authors are not considered as men of letters . Now I am very much ashamed that once upon a time I thought so low of Manto and degraded him .

My impression about him changed when I read his memoirs about the famous personalities of Hindi film industry . I was impressed with his style of prose writing and lucidity of  language .

Sa’adat Hassan Manto (May 11, 1912 – January 18, 1955)  is best known for his short stories, “Bu” , “Khol Do” , “Thanda Gosht” , and his magnum opus, “Toba Tek Singh“.

Manto was also a film and radio scriptwriter and a journalist . In his short life , he published twenty-two collections of short stories , one novel , five collections of radio plays , three collections of essays , and two collections of personal sketches.

Manto was tried for obscenity six times, thrice before 1947 and thrice after 1947 in Pakistan , but never convicted . Some of his works have been translated in other languages .

Saadat Hasan Manto is often compared with D. H. Lawrence , and like Lawrence he also wrote about the topics considered social taboos in Indo-Pakistani Society . His concerns on the sociopolitical issues , from local to global level are revealed in his series , Letters to Uncle Sam , and those to Pandit Nehru . On his writing he often commented , “If you find my stories dirty , the society you are living in is dirty . With my stories, I only expose the truth .”

After 1936 , he moved to Bombay  [ now Mumbai ] where he stayed for the next 5 years editing Musawwir , a monthly film magazine . He also started writing scripts and dialogues for Hindi films , including ” Kishan Kanhaiya ” [ 1936 ]  and ” Apni Nagariya ” [ 1939 ] . He continued writing for films until he left for Delhi in January 1941 .

Manto accepted the job of writing for Urdu Service of All India Radio in 1941. This proved to be his most productive period as in the next eighteen months he published over four collections of radio plays , Aao , Manto ke Drame , Janaze , and Teen Auraten . He continued to write short stories and his next short story collection Dhuan was soon out followed by Manto ke Afsane and his first collection of topical essays , Manto ke Mazamin . This period culminated with the publication of his mixed collection Afsane aur Drame in 1943 . Meanwhile , due to a quarrel with then director of the All India Radio , poet N. M. Rashid , he left his job and returned to Bombay in July 1942 and again started working with film industry . He entered his best phase in screenwriting giving films like ” Aatth Din ” , ” Chal Chal Re Naujawanand ” Mirza Ghalib ” , which was finally released in 1954 .

Some of his best short stories also came from this phase including  “Kaali Shalwar” ,  “Dhuan”  (1943) and “Bu”, which was published in Qaumi Jang (Bombay) in February 1945 . Another highlight of his second phase in Bombay was the publication of an important collection of his stories , Chugad . He stayed in Bombay until he moved to Pakistan in January 1948 after the partition of India in 1947.

During those days in Pakistan , Manto tried his hand at newspaper column writing . He started off with writing under the title Chashm-e-Rozan for daily Maghribi Pakistan on the insistence of his friends of Bombay days , Ehsan Ba and Murtaza Jillani, who were editing that paper . After a few columns, the space appeared blank under the column saying that due to his indisposition Manto couldn’t write the column. Actually, the owner was not favourably disposed to some of the content .

The only paper that published Manto’s articles regularly for quite some time was Daily Afaq , for which he wrote some of his well-known sketches . These sketches were later collected in his book Ganjay Farishtay . The sketches include those of famous actors and actresses like Ashok Kumar, Shyam, Nargis, Noor Jehan and Naseem (mother of Saira Banu) . He also wrote about some literary figures like Meera Ji , Hashar Kashmiri and Ismat Chughtai . Manto’s sketch of Muhammad Ali Jinnah was also first published in Afaq under the title Mera Sahib.

He , during his later years in Pakistan , embarked on a journey of self-destruction . The substandard alcohol that he consumed destroyed his liver and in the winter of 1955 he fell victim to liver cirrhosis . He was 42 years old at the time of his death. He was survived by his wife Safiyah and three daughters . Born in 1912 in Samrala , Ludhiana district of Indian Punjab , he died in 1955 in Lahore , Pakistani Punjab .

This year in 2012 India and Pakistan , both the countries , are celebrating his anniversary .

Manto collection (Books)

  • Atishparay (Nuggets Of Fire) – 1936
  • Chugaad
  • Manto Ke Afsanay (Stories of Manto) – 1940
  • Dhuan (Smoke) – 1941
  • Afsane Aur Dramay (Fiction and Drama) – 1943
  • Lazzat-e-Sang-1948 (The Taste Of Rock)
  • Siyah Hashiye-1948 (Black Borders)
  • Badshahat Ka Khatimah (The End of Kingship) – 1950
  • Khali Botlein (Empty Bottles) – 1950
  • Loud Speaker
  • Nimrud Ki Khudai (Nimrod The God) – 1950
  • Thanda Gosht (Cold Meat) – 1950
  • Yazid – 1951
  • Pardey Ke Peechhey (Behind The Curtains) – 1953
  • Sarak Ke Kinarey (By the Roadside) – 1953
  • Baghair Unwan Ke (Without a Title) – 1954
  • Baghair Ijazit (Without Permission) – 1955
  • Burquey – 1955
  • Phunduney (Tassles) – 1955
  • Sarkandon Ke Peechhey (Behind The Reeds) -1955
  • Shaiytan (Satan) – 1955
  • Shikari Auratein (Women Of Prey) – 1955
  • Ratti, Masha, Tolah-1956
  • Kaali Shalwar (Black Pants) – 1961
  • Manto Ki Behtareen Kahanian (Best Stories of Manto) – 1963
  • Tahira Se Tahir (From Tahira to Tahir) – 1971

I was re – introduced to him and his literary world , when I started training Dino Morea recently . We read several stories written by Manto and discussed them and thus a new vision about Manto was opened in front of my eyes . I deeply regret that once upon a time I degraded him in my mind and didn’t read his books earlier .

[ List of the works of Manto and some dates and facts of his life is taken from Wikipedia . I express my gratitude . ]

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

 

ErikaBeyk

This WordPress.com site is about Health and Wellbeing

Arun Shanbhag

Life is Beautiful, Live it the fullest

WordPress.com

WordPress.com is the best place for your personal blog or business site.

The WordPress.com Blog

The latest news on WordPress.com and the WordPress community.

%d bloggers like this: