100th Year of Formation of Bihar


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           AUGUST 08, 2012         01. 15 A.M.

This year in 2012 Bihar is celebrating 100 years of its existence as a province of India . Before 1912 Bihar was included in the erstwhile Bengal Presidency of British Indian Empire .

But Bihar’s history is much older that the British Indian Empire and even the rule of Afghans and Mughals .

Ancient Bihar (which consisted of Anga, Videha/Mithila, Magadha and Vajji/Vrijji) was a centre of power , learning and culture in ancient and classical India . From Magadha arose India’s first and greatest empire , the Maurya empire as well as one of the world’s most widely adhered-to religions , Buddhism . Magadha empires , notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties , unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule . Its capital Patna , earlier known as Pataliputra, was an important centre of Indian civilization . Nalanda and Vikramshila were centres of learning established in the 5th and 8th century respectively in Bihar , and are counted amongst the oldest and truly international universities , where people from all over the world came to study. Bihar has distinction of giving the world its first democracy through Lichchivi Ganarajya [ modern-day Vaishali district ] during ancient era . Though today , for some , Vaishali is more associated with Aamrapali , than with democracy . But for lovers of history , Vaishali will always be known as the epicentre of the FIRST PARLIAMENT OF THE WORLD .

I am posting few maps , which amply make clear the importance of Bihar and its significant contribution to the cultural ethos of India . From the mythological Magadh of Jarasandh and Anga of Karna of Mahabharata era , to the Maurya period and Chankya era and to the Golden Age of Guptas , Bihar has seen it all .

The approximate extent of the Magadha Empire i...

The approximate extent of the Magadha Empire in the 5th century BC. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The ‘16 Great Nations’; Anga is the easternmos...

The ‘16 Great Nations’; Anga is the easternmost, south of Vrijji and east of Magadha (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under ...

The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chandragupta's empire when he founded it c. 32...

Chandragupta’s empire when he founded it c. 320 BCE, by the time he was about 20 years old. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chandragupta Maurya's empire in 305 BC after h...

Chandragupta Maurya’s empire in 305 BC after his conflict with Seleucus Nicator. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Maurya Empire after Bindusara's death 269.

The Maurya Empire after Bindusara’s death 269. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Ashoka the Great subdued Kalinga, during the K...

Ashoka the Great subdued Kalinga, during the Kalinga War circa 265 BC, and the southern kingdoms. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: A map of the Maurya Dynasty, showing ...

English: A map of the Maurya Dynasty, showing major cities, early Buddhist sites, Ashokan Edicts, etc. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Appr...

Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Gupta Empire. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Patliputra as a capital of Sunga Empire. Appro...

Patliputra as a capital of Sunga Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga Empire (circa 185 BCE). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

After the end of this glorious and ancient chapter and after the end of not so significant Afghan and Mughal era , East India Company conquered large parts of northern India and became the de – facto rulers . After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Orissa , [ now Odisha ] . The rich resources of fertile land , water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists , particularly the Dutch and British , in the 18th century . Bihar remained a part the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912 , when the province of Bihar and Orissa [ now Odisha ] was carved out as a separate province . Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March . In 1935 , certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate province of Orissa [ now Odisha ] .

Map of United Bihar

Map of United Bihar

In 2000 , Bihar was divided into two and North part of undivided Bihar became Bihar and the Southern part was carved as a separate province and is now known as Jharkhand .

Bihar of Present Day

Bihar of Present Day

After partition , present day Bihar is the 12th largest state of India in terms of geographical size and 3rd largest in population . Apart from Hindi , Bihar is the home of some of the dialects of Hindi , like ; Bhojpuri , Magadhi , Maithili , Angika and Vajjika . For administrative purposes Bihar is divided into 9 divisions and 38 districts .

Location of Bihar in India

Location of Bihar in India

After independence and under the rule of Chief Ministers like ; Krishna Sinha and Anugrah Narayan Sinha , Bihar for some time , basked in the old glory of Patliputra . But it suffered a lot during the rule of Congress in later years . During the 15 year rule of Lalu Prasad Yadav and his wife Rabdi Devi , Bihar reached at its nadir . Lawlessness and anarchy ruled supreme . Day time murders became order of the day . Ransom became a respectable business . Reputation of Chankya’s Bihar and Chandragupta Maurya’s Patliputra was massacred and mutilated by RJD’s Lalu Prasad Yadav . It was further defaced and defiled by his inefficient wife Rabdi Devi .

After all the turmoil and tribulations , Bihar finally rejected RJD of Lalu and elected BJP , JD [ U ] combine in 2005 . Bihar is now marching ahead under the NDA rule . After Gujarat , now it is the second fastest growing state of India .

I am happy that in the centenary year of its existence , Bihar is shedding its infamous and nefarious image and gaining international respectability and appreciation . Bharatiya Janata Party and Janata Dal [ United ] combine deserve kudos for that . Though it is still miles behind of other states but definitely it is moving ahead and moving fast . May this centenary year be the golden year of Bihar .

I am happy because I have my roots in Bihar . My forefathers originally hailed from the state and only later on they migrated to Uttar Pradesh .

[ Some facts and figures of Bihar have been taken from Wikipedia . I express my gratitude . ]

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

100 Years of New Delhi


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           DECEMBER 15 , 2011           01.15 A.M.

On December 12 , 2011 New Delhi completed 100 years of its existence . During British period Calcutta [ now Kolkata ] was the capital of India . During Dilli Darbar of King George 5th ,  foundation stone for the new capital of Indian Empire was laid and thus New Delhi came into existence . It took three and a half months for the British government to decide on shifting the capital . Total cost of shifting was 4 million sterling pound .

1ST AVATAR – HASTINAPUR : It is needless to say that Dilli , now known as Delhi , is much older city . It is one of the oldest existing cities in the world along with Varanasi and Jerusalem . Seat of power since Mahabharat days , Dilli was then known to the world as Hastinapur . Kingdom of mythical Maharaj Shantanu and his descendants ; Kauravas and Pandavas ruled from here and this era ended with Parikshit and Janamejaya . It happened 5,000 years ago . It is said and believed that Purana Qila or Old Fort was built on the same place , where the mythical kingdom of Pandavas once existed . This is the first avatar of Dilli .

Purana Qila ramparts, Delhi.

Purana Qila

Though modern history starts with the Sultanate Period [ 12th century ] but existence of Iron Pillar near Qutub Minar indicates that Gupta Kings must have some kind of authority over Dilli as the Iron Pillar , which is situated in the Qutub Minar compound , was built by king Kumar Gupta 1 of Gupta dynasty .

English: The iron pillar in the Qutb complex n...

Iron Pillar near Qutub Minar

2ND AVATAR – QILA  RAI PITHORA : 2nd avatar of Dilli began to take shape with the Tomar kings . They stablished their capital here . Anangpal was the first Tomar king . Prithvi Raj Chauhan defeated Tomars and stablished Chauhan dynasty . Legendary Prithvi Raj Chauhan was , incidentally , the last Hindu ruler of Dilli . Ruins of his fort Lal Kot , now known as Qila Rai Pithora , is still there . Prithvi Raj Chauhan was defeated by Muhammad Gori and was taken to Ghazni as prisoner , where he died . With his death Chauhan era ended . With the end of this era 2nd avatar of Dilli also lost importance .

3RD AVATAR – MEHRAULI : After Prithvi Raj Chauhan’s defeat and his subsequent banishment , Qutubuddin Aibak became the ruler of Dilli and made Mehrauli his kingdom . Qutub Minar is testimony of his rule . Thus Mehrauli became the 3rd avatar of Dilli .

Qutab Minar in Delhi, India

Qutub Minar

4TH AVATAR – SIRI : 4th avatar of Dilli was built by Alauddin Khilji . Alauddin Khilji made his new capital at Siri . His tomb is situated nearby in Qutub Minar complex .

Siri Fort

Siri Fort

Tomb of Alauddin Khilji, Qutub Minar complex, ...

Tomb of Alauddin Khilji

5TH AVATAR – TUGHLAQABAD : 5th avatar of Dilli was built during the Tughlaq period . It was built by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq and its name was Tughlaqabad .

6TH AVATAR – JAHAPANAH : 6th city was built by Mohammad Bin Tughlaq , named Jahapanah . It was situated between Siri and Qila Rai Pithora .

7TH AVATAR – FEROZABAD : 7th avatar was Ferozabad , also called Feroz Shah Kotla . Firozabad was built by Feroz Shah Tughlaq .

English: Remains of buildings at Firoze Shah K...

Feroz Shah Kotla

8TH AVATAR – SHERGARH : 8th avatar was built by Sher Shah Suri . It’s name was  Shergarh . It was situated near the mythical Indraprastha of Pandavas .

Lal Darwaza or Sher Shah Suri Gate, near Puran...

Sher Shah Suri Gate near Purana Qila

Lal Darwaza (Red Gate)or Sher Shah Gate, with ...

Sher Shah Suri Gate near Purana Qila

9TH AVATAR – LODHI GARDEN : 9th avatar was built during the reign of Lodhi rulers . It is known as  Lodhi garden .

10TH AVATAR – SHAHJAHANABAD : 10th avatar of Dilli is Shahjahanabad . It was built as the kingdom of Shahjahan . It was a walled city with 6 gates . Lal Qila and Chandni Chowk are part of this city built by Shahjahan. Lal Qila or Red Fort is engrained in the memory of every Indian as the symbol of Dilli . Indian Tricolour was unfurled from the ramparts of Red Fort on August 14 , 1947 . It is a custom , which is still followed on the Independence Day .

Bird's eye View of Old Delhi.

Purani Dilli.

11TH AVATAR – NEW DELHI : Then comes New Delhi or Nai Dilli , the 11th avatar , which is also known as Lutyen’s Delhi . It is believed to be the 11th city of Dilli within Dilli . Leading British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker were appointed as the main architects of the new city . The new capital was named  New Delhi in 1927 and was inaugurated on February 13 , 1927 by Lord Irwin .

On December 12 , 2011 New Delhi celebrated 100 years of its existence . Magnificent Rashtrapati Bhawan , and the administrative headquarters , known as North Block and South Block amply testify the tale of New Delhi . A city of intrigues , political conspiracies and game Delhi or Dilli stands supreme and was resurrected every time after its destruction .

Along with Jerusalem , Dilli also tells age-old tales of survival and is now a modern metropolis . I conclude this blog with a Hindi poem , which I read years ago and in my opinion these lines tell the tale of Dilli , which is now known as New Delhi .

अपनी करनी के फल तुझ को ,
कुछ तो करते होंगे उदास ;
आखिर तू भी है दिल वाली ,
कुछ तो डरती होगी दिल्ली ||

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

 

 

ErikaBeyk

This WordPress.com site is about Health and Wellbeing

Arun Shanbhag

Life is Beautiful, Live it the fullest

WordPress.com

WordPress.com is the best place for your personal blog or business site.

The WordPress.com Blog

The latest news on WordPress.com and the WordPress community.

%d bloggers like this: