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250 anos de “A Terceira Batalha de Panipat”

Postado em 16 de janeiro de 2011 por Vidur [Kamal Nayan Chaturvedi]
1 Votes

Em 14 de janeiro de 2011, quando hindus em todo o mundo estavam celebrando Makar Sankranti, muitos não se lembrar que neste mesmo dia 250 anos atrás Sadashivrao Bhau juntamente com o seu exército estava lutando uma batalha perdida para nós no Amb Kala perto de Panipat . Conhecido na história como a Terceira Batalha de Panipat “, onde o exército de Marathas lutou afegão Ahmed Shah Durrani invasor aka Ahmed Shah Abdali. Batalha terminou em poucas horas e cerca de 60.000 / 70.000. soldados foram mortos. A linha de Maratha foi de 12 km.transversalmente, com a artilharia na frente, protegido por tropas de infantaria, enquanto a cavalaria foi instruído a esperar atrás da artilharia. Este erro tático foi fatal.Sem qualquer instrução cavalaria de espera começou a avançar causando vítimas entre os soldados Maratha que levam à derrota infame. Embora Marathas perdeu a batalha devido a erro estratégico, ninguém se atreveu a atacar a Índia após esta batalha há muitos anos.

The flag of the Maratha Empire.

Image via Wikipedia

Imagem via Wikipedia – Bandeira do Império Maratha

A Terceira Batalha de Panipat ocorreu em 14 de Janeiro de 1761, em Panipat(Haryana Estado, Índia), cerca de 60 milhas (95,5 km) ao norte de Delhi . A batalha opôs o francês fornecido artilharia e cavalaria dos Marathas contra a pesadacavalaria e artilharia montada (zamburak e jizail) dos afegãos liderado por Ahmad Shah Durrani , um grupo étnico pashtun , também conhecido como Ahmad Shah Abdali. A batalha é considerada uma das maiores batalhas travadas no século 18.

Flag of the Emirate of Herat, and of the Durra...Imagem via Wikipedia – Bandeira do Império do Afeganistão

O declínio do Império Mughal levou a conquistas territoriais para a Confederação Maratha. Ahmad Shah Abdali, entre outros, não estava disposto a permitir que os ganhos dos Marathas ir desmarcada. Em 1759, ele levantou um exército das tribos pashtun e fez vários ganhos contra as guarnições menores. Os Marathas, sob o comando do Sadashivrao Bhau , respondeu, reunindo um exército de entre 70.000-100.000 pessoas com as quais eles saquearam a capital Mughal de Delhi . Seguiu-se uma série de escaramuças ao longo das margens do rio Yamuna em Karnal eKunjpura que finalmente se transformou em um cerco de dois meses de duração conduzido por Abdali contra os Marathas.

High Resolution Flag of the Mughal Empire in SVGImagem via Wikipedia – Bandeira do Império Mogol

O local específico da batalha em si é contestada por historiadores, mas a maioria considera ter ocorrido em algum lugar perto de moderno-dia Kaalaa Aamb e Estrada Sanauli. A batalha durou vários dias e envolveu mais de 125.000 homens.Prolongadas escaramuças ocorreram, com perdas e ganhos em ambos os lados. As forças lideradas por Ahmad Shah Durrani saiu vitorioso após destruir vários flancos Maratha. A extensão das perdas em ambos os lados é fortemente contestada por historiadores, mas acredita-se que entre 60.000-70.000 foram mortos em combates, enquanto o número de feridos e prisioneiros tomados variam consideravelmente. O resultado da batalha foi a suspensão dos avanços Maratha do Norte.

English: The Indian subcontinent in 1760.

Image via Wikipedia

Imagem via Wikipedia – Índia em 1760

O Império Mughal estava em declínio desde a morte do imperador mogol Aurangzeb , em 1707. A queda foi acelerada pela invasão da Índia por Nadir Shah em 1739.Rebeliões continuado pelos Marathas no sul, ea separação de facto de um número de estados (incluindo Hyderabad e Bengal ), enfraqueceu o estado ainda mais.Dentro de alguns anos de morte de Aurangzeb, os Marathas havia revertido todos os seus ganhos territoriais no Deccan, e tinha conquistado quase todo o território Mughal na Índia central e norte. Mughals tinha, assim, tornar-se apenas as cabeças titulares de Delhi. Em 1761, eles queriam expandir mais ao norte e noroeste, onde o seu caminho cruzou Ahmad Shah Abdali – o governante do Afeganistão, que tinha vindo a fazer incursões no Punjab e nomeou seu filho como seu governador.

An approximate political map of the Indian sub...Imagem via Wikipedia – Mapa do Império Maratha

Os Marathas ganhou o controle de uma parte considerável da Índia no intervalo (1707-1757). Em 1758, eles ocupavam Delhi, capturado Lahore e expulsou Timur Shah Durrani , o filho e vice-rei do governante afegão, Ahmad Shah Abdali. Este foi o ponto alto da expansão Maratha, onde os limites de seu império se estendia do norte para o Indus eo Himalaia, e no sul quase até a extremidade da península. Este território foi governado pelo Peshwa , que falou de colocar seu filho Vishwasrao no trono Mughal. No entanto Delhi ainda permaneceu sob o controle nominal de Mongóis, os principais intelectuais muçulmanos, incluindo Shah Waliullah e outros clérigos muçulmanos na Índia e no Punjab, que estavam alarmados com estes desenvolvimentos. Em desespero, eles recorreram a Ahmad Shah Abdali, o governante do Afeganistão, para deter a ameaça.

Ahmad Shah Durrani, founded Afghanistan in 1747.

Image via Wikipedia

Imagem via Wikipedia – Ahmad Shah Abdali

Assim, após convite devido Ahmad Shah Abdali atacado Índia e no dia auspicioso de Makar Sankranti Sadashivrao Bhau perdeu a batalha de Panipat. A derrota infame ainda agita os Marathas. Há um ditado em Marathi Tyanche Panipat Jhale [Ele sucumbiu à sua Panipat] Metaforicamente Panipat tornou-se para Marathas, o que Waterloo foi para Napoleão. Ele quebrou o orgulho Maratha, ele interrompeu seus avanços em direção norte da Índia e, finalmente, a sua imagem prejudicada.Mas uma coisa estava intacta e continua intacta até hoje e que é o seu valor e seu orgulho. Mesmo depois de derrotar A Terceira Batalha de Panipat continua a ser um capítulo glorioso da nossa história, porque não foi por falta de coragem ou bravura, mas isso aconteceu devido a um erro tático e estratégico.

Vidur

MUMBAI-Porto – ÍNDIA

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Pongal the Food ; Not the Festival


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JANUARY 28 , 2012           01.40 A.M.

I always knew that Pongal is very important festival of Tamil Nadu . During my Allahabad days and then during my stay in Deoria , my native place , I came to know more about Pongal , the festival . This festival is akin to Makar Sankranti of North India .

An office in Tamil Nadu decorated for the fest...

Decoration for Pongal Festival

Pongal’s pan – Indian appeal is now known to all . Now even North Indians greet their Tamil friends on the occasion of Pongal .

Recently I went to Tamil Nadu for pilgrimage . Every single Tamil in the restaurant was ordering a dish for breakfast . It was called Pongal . I thought I am listening something else or simply I am not understanding the word properly . When a waiter approached me , he simply asked , what do you have sir ? Pongal – Dosai or Pongal – Vadai ? I was curious . I knew some of the South Indian delicacies like ; Dosa , Idali , Vada , Uthappam and Upma . I have eaten Appam also with Gassi , vegetables made in South Indian style . In deserts , I am fond of Thallaneer Payasam and Madurai Halwa . But Pongal ? I have never heard of this delicacy . Out of sheer curiosity , I ordered the dish .

Pongal

I was shocked beyond belief when I ate it . It was so delicious .

It is a dish made of coarse rice cooked with lot of water . More than normal water is used , so that it should  not become dry as normal rice . Pepper , ginger , salt and curry leaves are used to make it spicy . If you wish , you can add some dry fruits also to make it more tasty.

English: Pongal at City Home

Pongal Being Cooked

It is served hot with Rasam and Chutney . I had my sumptuous breakfast of Pongal – Vadai and immediately became addicted . I ate it daily till my last day of stay there.

I am not a food – writer . So I cannot write much about the elaborate cooking process of Pongal and my prose is also not very lucid . It is a lay man’s account of the dish , which is tasty beyond belief .

Pongal - Vadai

I got hooked to Pongal and shall remain so till the last breath of my life .

In a Restaurant at Vaitheeswarankoil , Tamil Nadu

 

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

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250 Years of ” The Third Battle of Panipat “


On January 14, 2011, when Hindus all over the world were celebrating Makar Sankranti, not many remembered that on this very day 250 years ago Sadashivrao Bhau along with his army was fighting a losing battle for us in the Kala Amb near Panipat. Known in history as theThird Battle of Panipat where army of Marathas fought Afghan invader Ahmed Shah Durrani a.k.a. Ahmed Shah Abdali. Battle ended within few hours and roughly 60,000/70,000 . soldiers got killed. The Maratha line was 12 km. across, with the artillery in front, protected by infantry while the cavalry was instructed to wait behind the artillery. This tactical mistake proved fatal. Without any instruction waiting cavalry started moving forward causing casualties among Maratha soldiers leading to the infamous defeat. Though Marathas lost the battle due to strategic mistake, no one dared to attack India after this battle for many years.

The flag of the Maratha Empire.

Image via Wikipedia - Flag of Maratha Empire

The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, at Panipat (Haryana State, India), about 60 miles (95.5 km) north of Delhi. The battle pitted the French-supplied artillery and cavalry of the Marathas against the heavy cavalry and mounted artillery(zamburak and jizail) of the Afghans led by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an ethnic Pashtun, also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali. The battle is considered one of the largest battles fought in the 18th century.

Flag of the Emirate of Herat, and of the Durra...

Image via Wikipedia - Flag of Afghan Empire

The decline of the Mughal Empire had led to territorial gains for the Maratha Confederacy. Ahmad Shah Abdali, amongst others, was unwilling to allow the Marathas’ gains to go unchecked. In 1759, he raised an army from the Pashtun tribes and made several gains against the smaller garrisons. The Marathas, under the command of Sadashivrao Bhau, responded by gathering an army of between 70,000-100,000 people with which they ransacked the Mughal capital of Delhi. There followed a series of skirmishes along the banks of the river Yamuna at Karnal and Kunjpura which eventually turned into a two-month-long siege led by Abdali against the Marathas.

High Resolution Flag of the Mughal Empire in SVG

Image via Wikipedia - Flag of Mughal Empire

The specific site of the battle itself is disputed by historians but most consider it to have occurred somewhere near modern-day Kaalaa Aamb and Sanauli Road. The battle lasted for several days and involved over 125,000 men. Protracted skirmishes occurred, with losses and gains on both sides. The forces led by Ahmad Shah Durrani came out victorious after destroying several Maratha flanks. The extent of the losses on both sides is heavily disputed by historians, but it is believed that between 60,000–70,000 were killed in fighting, while numbers of the injured and prisoners taken vary considerably. The result of the battle was the halting of the Maratha advances in the North.

The Indian subcontinent in 1760.

Image via Wikipedia - India in 1760

The Mughal Empire had been in decline since the death of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, in 1707. The decline was accelerated by the invasion of India by Nadir Shah in 1739. Continued rebellions by the Marathas in the south, and the de-facto separation of a number of states (including Hyderabad and Bengal), weakened the state further. Within a few years of Aurangzeb’s death, the Marathas had reversed all his territorial gains in the Deccan, and had conquered almost all Mughal territory in central and north India. Mughals had thus become just the titular heads of Delhi. In 1761, they wanted to expand further north and north-west, where their path crossed Ahmad Shah Abdali — the ruler of Afghanistan, who had been making raids into Punjab and had appointed his son as its governor.

 

An approximate political map of the Indian sub...

Image via Wikipedia - Map of Maratha Empire

The Marathas had gained control of a considerable part of India in the intervening period (1707–1757). In 1758, they occupied Delhi, captured Lahore and drove out Timur Shah Durrani,the son and viceroy of the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Abdali. This was the high-water mark of the Maratha expansion, where the boundaries of their empire extended in the north to the Indus and the Himalayas, and in the south nearly to the extremity of the peninsula. This territory was ruled through the Peshwa, who talked of placing his son Vishwasrao on the Mughal throne. However Delhi still remained under the nominal control of Mughals, key Muslim intellectuals including Shah Waliullah and other Muslim clergy in India and Punjab who were alarmed at these developments. In desperation they appealed to Ahmad Shah Abdali, the ruler of Afghanistan, to halt the threat.

 

Ahmad Shah Durrani, founded Afghanistan in 1747.

Image via Wikipedia - Ahmad Shah Abdali

Thus after due invitation Ahmad Shah Abdali attacked India and on the auspicious day of Makar Sankranti Sadashivrao Bhau lost the battle of Panipat. The infamous defeat still rattles the Marathas. There is a saying in Marathi Tyanche Panipat Jhale [ He succumbed to his Panipat ] Metaphorically Panipat has become for Marathas, what Waterloo was for Napoleon. It shattered Maratha pride, it halted their advances towards North India and finally it dented their image. But one thing was intact and it remains intact even today and that is their valour and their pride. Even after defeat The Third Battle of Panipat remains a glorious chapter of our history, because it was not because of lack of courage or valour but it happened because of a tactical and strategic error.

VIDUR

MUMBAI -MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

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