Birth of A New Ukraine


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MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           FEBRUARY 24, 2014           01.30 A.M.

Two years ago, on February 01, 2012 , I wrote a blog about Ukraine , a former Soviet republic and a very little known country in India. It was titled ” Sorry Ukraine , My Apology “ and was written when a group of Ukrainian women demonstrated naked in front of Indian embassy in Ukrainian capital of Kiev . Two years later, I am again writing about Ukraine and this time matter is more serious.

Map of Ukraine-2

Map of Ukraine-3

Ukraine was a Soviet Republic before becoming a sovereign country. As every one knows on December 26, 1991 , USSR [ Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ] was dissolved and 15 independent countries came into being.

Even after dissolution of USSR , some former Soviet republics retained and maintained close links with Russia. Some republics formed Eurasian Economic Community and retained close links with Russia in the form of economic and security cooperation.

It is alleged that Russian President Vladimir Putin secretly wants to re-establish the former USSR . He knows that his dream is almost impossible to accomplish, so he encourages friendly leaders in the former Soviet republics to become close allies. He wants them to join Eurasian Union and thus help him retain some of the old glory. In his scheme of things Viktor Yanukovich, the president of Ukraine , was the most important ally.

Ukrainian people read the writing on the wall and saw the signal. For majority of Ukrainian people Ukraine’s president Viktor Yanukovich was not more than a stooge of Vladimir Putin , who wanted Ukraine to become a satellite of Russia. People of Ukraine on the other hand wanted to move away from Russian orbit and wanted to get closer to Europe.

Sensing trouble, Viktor Yanukovich started reign of oppression. He ruled Ukraine with iron fist, jailed former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko and moved dangerously close to Russia.

Ukraine erupted in defiance. They fought a bloody battle . Kiev became a war zone. 77 people got killed. Dictator Viktor Yanukovich first tried to suppress Ukraine . But in these days of internet and other social networking sites it is not easy. Ukrainians remained defiant. They fought police and army. Ukraine wanted to get rid of the dictator.

Following pictures show their resolve.

Protests in Ukraine -1

Protests in Ukraine -1

Protests in Ukraine -2

Protests in Ukraine -2

Protests in Ukraine -3

Protests in Ukraine -3

Protests in Ukraine -4

Protests in Ukraine -4

Protests in Ukraine -5

Protests in Ukraine -5

Burning Ukraine

Burning Ukraine

Ukraine in Shambles

Ukraine in Shambles

Ultimately Ukraine’s parliament voted on February 22, 2014 in favour of removal of Viktor Yanukovich from the post. Viktor Yanukovich denounced this as coup against his regime and left his office in Kiev and disappeared . Ukraine’s parliament promised new elections and formation of a new government . Police of Ukraine and Ukrainian army declared that they are with the protestors and are not going to fight their own people.

While I am writing this blog rapid changes are being seen in Ukraine. Former prime minister and opposition leader Yulia Tymoshenko was freed from the jail and fresh election has been ordered on May 25. Ukraine turns a new page in her history. World is watching.

The Russian stooge is gone and with his unceremonial departure dreams of Vladimir Putin evaporates in the thin air.

Long live Ukraine ! Long live people of Ukraine ! Long live struggle for freedom ! Long live struggle for democracy !

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On behalf of all the students and staff of VIDUR Acting Institute , I express my solidarity with the Ukrainian people.

VIDUR Editing Studio , VIDUR Club and VIDUR Theatre would also like to wish them well in their glorious journey ahead .

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Inder Kumar Gujral : Father of A Failed Doctrine


I K Gujral

I K Gujral (Photo credit: ramesh_lalwani)

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           DECEMBER 02 , 2012           11.40 P.M.

Inder Kumar Gujral , the 12th Prime Minister of India , ruled the country for almost 11 months . He was Prime Minister from April 1997 to March 1998 . He , apart from his brief tenure , will always be remembered for 3 (in) famous legacies . He was the second Prime Minister of India , who ruled the country without being elected to Lok Sabha . He was member of Rajya Sabha throughout his tenure . His immediate predecessor H. D. Deve Gowda was the first one to govern the country from Rajya Sabha . His second controversial act was to dismiss BJP government of Uttar Pradesh led by Kalyan Singh . His third (in) famous legacy was a foreign policy doctrine known as ” Gujral Doctrine ” .

Born on December 04 , 1919 in the Jhelum district of undivided Punjab , he died on November 30 , 2012 in Gurgaon , Haryana .

As a student in Lahore , he was member of Communist Party of India . He joined Indian National Congress in 1964 . He was Minister of Information and Broadcasting in the Indira Gandhi government during the dreaded emergency . He allegedly refused to obey commands of Sanjay Gandhi and thus was out of favour . He was later appointed as the ambassador of India to USSR [ Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ] , now known as Russia . It goes to his credit that he continued to hold the position during the tenure of Morarji Desai and Charan Singh regimes also .

He , after returning from USSR , resigned from the Congress in 1980 and joined Janata Dal . He was Minister of External Affairs during the regime of V. P. Singh . He again retained the same ministry during the tenure of H. D. Deve Gowda . The year was 1996 . During this period he propounded his (in) famous doctrine , known as ” Gujral Doctrine ” .

In 1997 , Congress withdrew support to H. D. Deve Gowda government and it collapsed . To avoid general election a compromise was stitched and Inder Kumar Gujral was sworn in as the 12th Prime Minister of India on April 21 , 1997 .

As I have stated earlier , as a Prime Minister he supported the dismissal of Kalyan Singh government of Uttar Pradesh in 1997 and tried to impose president rule . The then president of India K. R. Narayanan refused to sign the recommendation and sent it back . Inder Kumar Gujral government had egg on its face when Allahabad High Court also gave decision against the President’s rule . He had to eat crow .

His another controversial legacy is his (in) famous ” Gujral Doctrine ” . According to this doctrine India , being a big brother , should not demand reciprocity while dealing with her immediate neighbours like ; Pakistan , Nepal , Bangladesh , Bhutan , Maldives and Sri Lanka . Without caring or demanding for any kind of reciprocity , India should give all she can with generosity and magnanimity .

Though I have all the respect for this erudite statesman , I submit with all the humility that ” Gujral Doctrine “ is flawed . 26 / 11 and other terrorist incidents are ample proof of the futility of ” Gujral Doctrine ” .

As the news of his death came , I remembered his suave and gentle persona . He was our 12th Prime Minister during fluid and turbulent times . He erred when he dismissed Kalyan Singh government in Uttar Pradesh and again succumbed to his innate kindness while propounding ” Gujral Doctrine “ . Real – politic should follow Chanakya or Machiavelli . It should never be based on utopian philosophy of goodwill and generosity .

As per Hindu tradition one should not speak ill of the dead person . But since Inder Kumar Gujral was the Prime Minister of this country and his actions affected us enormously , so it is pertinent to analyze his tenure . This blog precisely does that .

I mourn his death and offer my condolences .

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I , on behalf of all the students and staff of my acting institute , Vidur’s Kreating Charakters  , pray for the departed soul .

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50 Years of Cuban Missile Crisis


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           OCTOBER 30, 2012           00.45 A.M.

Year 1962 in general and October 1962 in particular is permanently etched and engraved in my memory for two historical events . First is Chinese invasion of India and the second one is Cuban Missile Crisis .

I was 10 years old boy living in Deoria , Uttar Pradesh . My adolescent mind was getting awakened to the happenings of the world . I was curious . I was eager to gather knowledge . I was fascinated by the twists and turns of history . And these two epoch – making chapters of history opened in front of my eyes . I will write a separate blog about Chinese Invasion of India . Let me concentrate here on Cuban Missile Crisis .

 

U.S. reconnaissance photograph of soviet missi...

U.S. reconnaissance photograph of soviet missile sites on Cuba, taken from a Lockheed U-2 spy plane following the Cuban missile crisis. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

English: CIA reference photograph of Soviet me...

CIA reference photograph of Soviet medium-range ballistic missile (SS-4 in U.S. documents, R-12 in Soviet documents) in Red Square, Moscow. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Two main protagonists of the drama are now gone . J. F. Kennedy , the then President of U.S.A. got assassinated and Nikita Khrushchev , the then Premier of U.S.S.R. was deposed and subsequently died a natural death . But Comrade Fidel Castro , the then President of Cuba is still alive . His brother Raul Castro , who held parley with Nikita Khrushchev , is now President of Cuba . Let me unveil the incidents of the crisis , which might have escalated into World War III .

 

English: John F. Kennedy meeting with Nikita K...

John F. Kennedy meeting with Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

EXCOMM meeting at the White House Cabinet Room...

EXCOMM meeting at the White House Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis on October 29, 1962. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

The Soviet Union sending nuclear warheads to Cuba followed the 1958 deployment by the United States of Thor IRBMs in the UK (Project Emily) and Jupiter IRBMs to Italy and Turkey in 1961 – more than 100 US-built missiles having the capability to strike Moscow with nuclear warheads. After provocative political moves and the failed US attempts to overthrow the Cuban regime (Bay of Pigs, Operation Mongoose), in May 1962 Nikita Khrushchev proposed the idea of placing Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba to deter any future invasion attempt. During a meeting between Khrushchev and Raúl Castro that July, a secret agreement was reached and construction of several missile sites began in the late summer. These preparations were noticed, and on 14 October an US U-2 aircraft took several pictures clearly showing sites for medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles (MRBMs and IRBMs) under construction. These images were processed and presented on October 15, which marks the beginning of the 13-day crisis from the US perspective.

The United States considered attacking Cuba via air and sea, but decided on a military blockade instead, calling it a “quarantine” for legal and other reasons. The US announced that it would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba, demanded that the Soviets dismantle the missile bases already under construction or completed, and return all offensive weapons to the USSR. The Kennedy administration held only a slim hope that the Kremlin would agree to their demands, and expected a military confrontation.

On the Soviet side, Premier Nikita Khrushchev wrote in a letter from October 24, 1962 to President John F. Kennedy that his blockade of “navigation in international waters and air space” constituted “an act of aggression propelling humankind into the abyss of a world nuclear-missile war”.However, in secret back-channel communications the President and Premier initiated a proposal to resolve the crisis. While this was taking place, several Soviet ships attempted to run the blockade, increasing tensions to the point that orders to US Navy ships to fire warning shots and then open fire were sent out. On 27 October a U-2 was shot down by a Soviet missile crew, an action that could have resulted in immediate retaliation from the Kennedy crisis cabinet, according to Secretary of Defense McNamara‘s later testimony. However, in the event itself, Kennedy stayed his hand and the negotiations continued.

 

English: The engine of Lockheed U-2 which has ...

The engine of Lockheed U-2 which has been brought down above Cuba in Museum of the Revolution in Havana (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

English: Nikita Kruschev letter to President K...

Nikita Kruschev letter to President Kennedy stating that the Cuban Missile Crisis quarantine “constitute[s] an act of aggression propelling humankind into the abyss of a world nuclear-missile war.” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The confrontation ended on October 28, 1962,when Kennedy and United Nations Secretary-General U Thant reached an agreement with Khrushchev. Publicly, the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, subject to United Nations verification, in exchange for an US public declaration and agreement never to invade Cuba. Secretly, the US agreed that it would dismantle all US-built Jupiter IRBMs deployed in Turkey and Italy.

 

English: Adlai Stevenson II shows aerial photo...

Adlai Stevenson II shows aerial photos of Russian missiles in Cuba to the United Nations Security Council in the presence of USSR ambassador Valerian Zorin. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

I am quoting the events of the crisis from Wikipedia . Because , though I vividly remember the crisis but day-to-day events in chronological order have been almost obfuscated from my memory .

While I was sitting in the office of my acting institute Vidur’s Kreating Charakters , I suddenly remembered those fateful days and decided to write a blog on the topic in the night .

I still wonder , what would have been fate of the world in general and India in particular , had the crisis been not diffused in 1962 ?

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Don’t Have Heart to Say Happy Losar My Tibetan Friends !


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           FEBRUARY 22 , 2012           02.45 A.M.

Today , it is the Tibetan New Year ; known as Losar . This , the most important festival of Tibet , is celebrated in Tibetan diaspora with great fervour and festivity .

The Gompa being performed in Lachung during th...

Gompa Dance on the Occasion of Losar

Basically a pre – Buddhist tradition of Bon era , Losar later on became the most important Buddhist festival during the reign of the 9th king of Tibet . Celebrated in Tibet for 15 days , Losar is also celebrated in various parts of India and Nepal , where Buddhist population is concentrated .

It is natural to wish our Tibetan friends on this auspicious occasion . But till date 26 Tibetans have died for the cause of independent Tibet . Some of these martyrs are even teenagers . When almost everyday news is tickling out of OCCUPIED TIBET that young boys and girls are self – immolating themselves and world is watching with stoic silence , how can you celebrate New Year ? Even if you would like to wish Tibetan brothers and sisters on the occasion of Losar , how on earth you would wish them , when a teenager self – immolated himself just 2/3 days ago ? How there could be a happy Losar when Potala Palace is without HH Dalai Lama  and Tibet has become a virtual prison ?

Potala Palace of Dalai Lama in Lhasa

At least I don’t have heart to say Happy Losar my Tibetan friends . I am ashamed that I live in a world where no one cares for young , teenager Tibetan monk‘s lives . I am anguished that my country and most of my countrymen are either silent or ignorant of the happenings in Tibet .

I think it my duty to educate my countrymen about the Tibetan cause . In spite of being a non – entity , I would strive to ignite a flame among the ignorant youngsters of India for the independence of Tibet . I wish to state through this blog that , though I would love to visit Kailash and Mansarovar Lake for pilgrimage but I don’t wish to visit these two holy places as long as Tibet ia under illegal occupation of Peoples Republic of China . I wish to visit Kailash and Mansarovar Lake on Tibetan visa . It seems implausible at present but 25 years back no one even thought that USSR [ Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ] would be dissolved and instead of one monolithic state there will be 15 independent , sovereign countries .

Mount Kailas

Mount Kailash

Lake Manasarovar

If USSR could dissolve , if Eastern Europe could be free from the communism , so could be Peoples Republic of China . My friends , Independent , sovereign Tibet will be reality very soon .

Map of Cultural & Historical Tibet with Amdo & Kham

My friends , I have no heart to wish you on this New Year . I have only prayers for Independent , Sovereign and Unified Greater Tibet .

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Sorry Ukraine , My Apology !


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           FEBRUARY 01 , 2012           01.30 A.M.

In the beginning of January 2012 , I read a disturbing news item in the Mumbai edition of Times of India and other news papers . I am putting that news verbatim , as it is available on the internet  :

” Four FEMEN activists have undressed at the Indian embassy in Kiev in protest against the country’s plan to block young Ukrainian, Russian and Kazakh women from entering India as part of a national anti-prostitution campaign.

The topless activists, partially clad in Indian clothes, used a ladder to climb the Indian embassy’s balcony and unfurled banners saying Ukrainians are not prostitutes!”, “Delhi, close your brothels,” and “We demand apologies.”

The protesters waved Indian flags and knocked on the embassy’s doors and windows – until detained by security guards and taken away by the police.

The demo was sparked after the Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs ordered its embassies to take extra care checking visa applications from women aged 15-40, who are blamed for the country’s prostitution boom.

FEMEN’s blog says that by issuing such an order, India has gravely insulted the women of Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan.

“Indian prostitution is directly connected with impunity of the country’s criminal business,” the blog states. “Blaming it on women is a shame for the heirs of such a rich and old culture.”

The FEMEN movement made its name by carrying out politically motivated naked protests at home in Ukraine and in countries throughout Europe, including the Vatican . ”

FEMEN

Image via Wikipedia

[ On January 16, Ukraine’s Ministry of Justice refused to register FEMEN as an official political movement, claiming its position was extremist. ]

USSR [ Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ] was dissolved in 1991 and 15 new countries came into existence . Ukraine became independent on August 24 , 1991 and along with other former Soviet Republics , started her life on a new note .

Map of Ukraine

Economy of  Ukraine , in spite of her shinning capital city Kiev , is in shambles . She was unable to cope up with the transition to market economy and started struggling with her economy . She , during this period , was stricken with 8 year – recession also . Then in 2008 , Ukraine was caught in the world-wide economic crisis . Economy suffered and finally plunged .

Kiev - Capital of Ukraine

According to me because of this grim economic situation many Ukrainians started visiting various countries , including India , in search of job and greener pastures . It is said that Ukrainian girls are indulging in prostitution in India . So the Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs ordered its embassies to take extra care checking visa applications from women aged 15-40, who are blamed for the country’s prostitution boom.

I strongly feel that such kind of order for the blanket ban of Ukrainian , Russian and Kazakh women is insulting indeed . Even if Ukrainian girls are indulging in some kind of amoral activities , the order is harsh and uncalled for . There is law enforcing agency in India . They must perform their duties and should do something to stop this menace . A policy to not issue visa to the young girls of Ukraine , Russia and Kazakhstan is very humiliating and insulting .

In stead of making the machinery more effective , Government of India issues such insulting advisory to the Indian Embassy . FEMEN , which always protests in the matter of women , took offence and umbrage and protested naked in front of Indian Embassy in Kiev .

FEMEN Protest in Kiev

FEMEN Protest in Kiev

FEMEN Protest in Kiev

FEMEN Protest in Kiev

I am pained to see these 4 photographs . If women can undress themselves for a cause and protest naked in public , one can understand their pain and agony .

I empathise with them . I feel sorry for them . Brothels are in plenty in India . And they are not thriving because of Ukrainian girls . It is reported by some N.G.O.s that poor minor girls of Nepal and Bangladesh are  lured into prostitution and brothels in metro cities of India are full of them . So why blame only Ukrainian girls . Is it not duty of the police to stop prostitution ? Is it not duty of the N.G.O.s to rehabilitate these poor girls and arrange for their deportation to their native countries ?  In stead of strengthening its law enforcing agencies , central government reneges its duty and issues such derogatory and inhuman order .

Words are not saying it and it is not there in the text but the order suggests that Ukrainian women are prostitutes . It is not there openly in the order but one can easily draw the meaning . I am a non – entity but still I feel like apologising to the Ukrainian women .

My Ukrainian friends , I am extremely sorry ! Though I wish to do something regarding this but I am a small and helpless man . I am not more than a spec in the scheme of the things .

I can only express anguish and offer my apologies on behalf of this ancient Nation , where women used to be adored once upon a time and are still worshiped in the form of various goddesses .

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Svetlana Alliluyeva : From Russia With Love


Svetlana Alliluyeva

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JANUARY 14 , 2012           02.55 A.M.

Svetlana Alliluyeva , daughter of Soviet Communist dictator Josef Stalin , died on November 22 , 2011 at the age of 85 . She died in Wisconsin , U. S. A.

I missed the news then . When I was going through the bunch of old news papers few days ago , I came across a small news item about her death in the Times of India . This innocuous news of Svetlana’s death brought back some forgotten memories . It opened a dog – ear – page of my book of life  . Some sepia – toned photos rushed to the firmament of my being .

The year was 1967 . I passed High School and went to Allahabad for further studies . In the Government Inter College of Allahabad , I was slowly opening up . I was curious to know everything . I wanted to know all the aspects of the world and I used to devour knowledge of every kind .

News papers of 1966 were full of  the Svetlana episode . Svetlana left USSR [ Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ] in 1966 , and came to India with the ashes of her third husband Brijesh Singh , a scion of Kalakankar state in Uttar Pradesh . Indian news papers were full of her stories and every one was anxious and curious to know more about her .

Svetlana Alliluyeva

Svetlana Iosifovna Alliluyeva , youngest child and only daughter of Josef Stalin and Nadezhda Alliluyeva was raised by a nanny . Her mother died when Svetlana was only 6 years old . According to Soviet premiere Nikita Khrushchev , Stalin was an abusive husband . It is rumoured that Nadezhda Alliluyeva committed suicide due to the atrocities of Stalin . According to some , she was killed by Stalin himself .

Josef Stalin

Stalin & Svetlana

Svetlana married twice but her marriages were not successful . Stalin died in 1953 . Svetlana was 27 years old then . After her father’s death , she worked as a lecturer of history and political thought in Moscow . Apart from Russian , she was fluent in German , French and English .

Svetlana & Stalin

Svetlana met Brijesh Singh , her third husband in a hospital in 1963 . She was admitted for a minor surgery and Brijesh Singh , a scion of Kalakankar state of Uttar Pradesh , was very ill at that time and was admitted for a major operation . They met , fell in love and love blossomed when they shifted to a resort near Black Sea . Couple returned to Moscow in 1965 but were not allowed to marry .  Singh died in 1966 and with his ashes , Svetlana left USSR [ Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ] in 1966 , and came to India with the ashes to immerse it in the Holy Ganga .

She stayed in Kalakankar Palace for 8 months and wanted to take asylum in India . It was refused and she approached U. S. A. embassy in New Delhi and was granted U. S. citizenship .


सैकत शैय्या पर दुग्ध धवल ,
तन्वंगी गंगा ग्रीष्म विरल ,
बैठीं हैं शांत क्लांत निश्चल ||
कालाकांकर का राज भवन ……..

I still remember these lines of famous Hindi poet Sumitra Nandan Pant . Kalakankar was etched in my memory .  Like the other fellow students of my age , I was aghast that the Congress government of Indira Nehru Gandhi didn’t grant asylum to Svetlana . Majority of students of Allahabad University were critical of the Congress government’s decision .

She got asylum in United States of America and later on became a citizen also . Later on she wrote a best-selling book ; ” Twenty Letters To A Friend ” and married there and had a daughter , Olga .

Cover of

Cover of Twenty Letters to a Friend

She moved back to Soviet Union in 1980 and again returned to U. S. A. within a year . Slowly she moved away from the front pages of the news papers . Slowly her memory faded .

Last week , when I read about her death . flood of memories gushed to my mind and I started remembering those days of 1966 , when Svetlana came to India seeking asylum and was denied that . We suspected that the Congress government refused asylum to her under pressure from government of the then USSR .

With her death , a forgotten and faded chapter of my dog – eared book of life is lost forever .

Svetlana Alliluyeva

Farewell Svetlana Iosifovna Alliluyeva ! May you rest in peace !

I am sorry that my country , which is famous for not refusing shelter to anyone , failed for the first time . I am sorry that a long tradition of granting shelter to the shelter – seekers was broken for the first time during the tenure of Indira Nehru Gandhi of the Congress , The Indian National Congress .

I was ashamed then and I am saddened now .

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South Sudan : Birth of A Nation


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JANUARY 08 , 2012           11.45 P.M.

It is not that every day a new country is born . It happens occasionally . It happens once in a life time . So when I read about the vivisection of Sudan , a country in Africa , I was pleasantly surprised .

In my 60 years of existence , I have seen birth of 28 major countries . I might be forgetting some tiny countries but 28 major countries took birth during my life time and I vividly remember those epoch – making moments . So when Sudan was split into two , I decided to chronicle these events .

Bangladesh :

===============

English: East Bengal Map

Map of Bangladesh

Map of Bangladesh

First major country , whose birth I remember , was Bangladesh . She came into being in 1971 after a bloody and gory battle with Pakistan . Formerly East Pakistan , the new country Bangladesh , became independent in 1971 .

Birth of Bangladesh is proof that religion can not be a binding factor for a country . In the case of Bangladesh , the common religion , Islam failed to unite two wings of Pakistan .

Bangladesh became a member of United Nation Organization in 1974 .

Vietnam :

=============

Map of Vietnam with Indo - China Nations

Vietnam’s journey as a nation is fascinating . From Imperial China to French colonizers she travelled through the centuries and the journey was an arduous one at times . Later on Vietnam accepted communism , she was divided into two ; North Vietnam and South Vietnam . North Vietnam was communist and South Vietnam was capitalist . Hanoi and Saigon were the capital cities of two Vietnams respectively . Both parts of Vietnams were united on July 02 , 1976 .

Vietnam is one nation . She was divided into two states . But nationalism prevailed and finally Vietnam was united again and again became one nation .

Germany :

==============

Map of East & West Germany

Map of Germany

History of Germany is very fascinating . Germany’s case , like Vietnam , is the classic case of a nation triumphing over a state . Basically a nation , Germany was divided into two states after 1945 . Communist East Germany was called German Democratic Republic with East Berlin as capital . Capitalist  West Germany was called Federal Republic of Germany with Bonn as capital .

After just 45 years of vivisection , German nationalism prevailed and Germany once again became one nation in 1990 . Berlin became the national capital and Berlin wall was demolished .

Case of Germany is like Vietnam . Both are one nation . Both were divided into two states . Political divisions like capitalism and communism were unable to divide them and they finally became one nation .

Union of Soviet Socialist Republic :

=================================

Map of U.S.S.R.

If Vietnam and Germany are the symbols of victory of nation over state , then USSR is the symbol of failure of state in front of nationalism . Vietnam and Germany were one nation divided in two states . Finally they became one nation . USSR was one state with 15 nations and was dissolved in 1991 after 69 years of artificial existence and 15 independent and sovereign nations came into being .

Russia , Ukrain , Belarus , Uzbekistan , Turkmenistan , Tajikistan , Azerbijan , Kazakhistan , Kirghizstan , Georgia , Armenia , Moldova , Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania were merged to form USSR [ Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ] . They became independent in 1991 .

It was most momentous time of my life . Mighty USSR just collapsed in front of my eyes and 15 new nations were born . It never seemed probable even a month before December 1991 that an invincible looking USSR will cease to exist .

All 15 nations became members of  U. N. O. in 1992 .

Yugoslavia ;

=================

Map of Yugoslavia

Former Parts of Yugoslavia

After fall of USSR , other communist nations were also became vulnerable . Yugoslavia , another classic case of one state and several nations , became unstable. Artificially created state of Yugoslavia disintegrated in 1991 after demise of Josip Broz Tito and collapse of Union of Soviet Socialist Republic .

Croatia , Serbia , Slovenia , Mecedonia , Montenegro and Bosnia & Herzegovina asserted their nationalistic aspirations and became independent and sovereign nations .

Off all these 6 nations ; Croatia , Slovenia and Bosnia & Herzegovina became members of U. N. O. in 1992 . Mecedonia became a member in 1993 , Serbia joined in 2000 and the 6th one Montenegro became member of U. N. O. in 2006 .

Czechoslovakia :

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Map of Czechoslovakia

Czech Republic & Slovakia

After USSR and Yugoslavia , another communist country , Czechoslovakia , collapsed soon . She was also one state and two nations . On January 01 , 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia became independent and they both joined U. N. O. in 1993 .

South Sudan :

===============

Sudan’s case is different . She is one nation but religion divides them . North Sudan is Islamic and finds solace in the comity of Arab nations . South Sudan is Christian and is not comfortable with Arab identity .

After 5 decades of guerrilla struggle and loss of 2 million lives , South Sudan came into existence on July 09 , 2011 . She became Africa’s 54th state with Juba as the capital of the new state .

Religion failed to unite Pakistan and Bangladesh . In Sudan’s case religion divided them . Fate of South Sudan is unknown and precarious . Majority of its people live on less than a dollar a day . Almost three-quarter of  adults cannot read or write . Only 1% has a bank account .

Sudan with Khartoum as its capital is Islamic and prefers Arab identity . While South Sudan with Juba as its capital is Christian and prefers western identity . South Sudan is the 54th African state and 193rd member of United Nations Organization .

India South Sudan Locator

Location of India & South Sudan

Sudan - South Sudan - Locator map

Location of Sudan & South Sudan

Map of Sudan

Map of North & South Sudan

English: Seal of the Government of Southern Sudan

Seal of Government of South Sudan

So South Sudan became the 54th African State . She became newest and 193rd country of the world . She became the 28th nation to become independent in my life time . As I stated earlier , countries don’t take birth everyday . Birth of a nation is a rare experience . I am lucky that I could witness birth of 28 nations in my life .

It is rare . It is unique . It is not going to happen again . Welcome 193rd nation of this earth !

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

 

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