Sunset Boulevard ( 7 ) : ” Vanishing Milestones “


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JULY 07 , 2012           01.00 A.M.

I wrote 1st blog in the ” Sunset Boulevard ” category on December 28 , 2009 . It was about Bajaj Scooter . There was news that owners of Bajaj are discontinuing the production of their iconic Bajaj scooter permanently . A sense of nostalgia gripped me and I wrote about ” Hamara Bajaj ” . I never thought that one day I would be writing 7th blog in this category .

Recently when I visited my native place Deoria , I suddenly noticed that ubiquitous milestones are slowly but steadily vanishing from the roads . Such iconic part of one’s life is now giving way to some metallic mileposts and no one is noticing it .

What is a milestone ?

As dictionary explains its meaning ; ” a milestone is a stone functioning as a milepost .”

Later on the word milestone started carrying other meaning also . A milestone is refered to as ” a significant event or stage in the life , progress , development in the life of a person and / or a nation . “

Since olden times , milestones are used on the roads to show a mile of distance from one place to another . In those days of yore when ” Google Earth ” and ” Google Maps ” were yet to appear and digital maps with the ; GPRS [ Global Positioning Radio System ] or GPS [ Global Positioning System ] technology were yet to become a part of our lives , a milestone was the only indicator or sign which indicated that we are travelling on the right path .

Roman Empire

Milestones were originally stone obelisks – made from granite marble or whatever local stone was available – and later concrete posts. They were widely used by Roman Empire road builders and were an important part of any Roman road network . Many Roman milestones only record the name of the reigning emperor without giving any place names or distances.  The first Roman milestones appeared on the Appian way. At the centre of Rome, the “Golden Milestone” was erected to mark the presumed centre of the empire : this milestone has since been lost. The Golden Milestone inspired the Zero Milestone in Washington, D.C., intended as the point from which all road distances in the United States should be reckoned.

Zero Milestone (1923), The Ellipse, Washington...

Zero Milestone (1923), The Ellipse, Washington, D.C. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 Byzantine Empire

A mile-marker monument, the Milion , was erected in the early 4th century AD in Constantinople . It served as the starting point for measurement of distances for all the roads leading to the cities of the Byzantine Empire , and had the same function as the Milliarium Aureum of Ancient Rome . The Milion survived intact until at least the late 15th century. Its fragments were discovered again in the late 1960s. A fragment is re-erected as a pillar.

Post Medieval Europe

In Europe , the distance measured typically starts at specified point within a city or town , as many roads were named for the towns at either end . For example in London , United Kingdom , a plaque near the Eleanor cross at Charing Cross is the reference point from which distances from London to other towns and cities are measured . In the UK, milestones are especially associated with former Turnpike roads .

 Modern highways

The historical term milestone is still used today, even though the “stones” are typically metal signs and in most countries are based on metric rather than imperial units of measure . Also found today are more closely spaced signs containing fractional numbers , and signs along railways, beaches and canals .

Milestones on Indian highways typically have white backgrounds with yellow tops (on national highways) or green tops (on state highways) . The names of cities and distances are painted in black . The names of the nearest towns and cities are written along with distance in kilometres . On undivided highways , both sides of the milestones are used , telling the distance to the nearest cities in each direction . The highway number is written on the head of the milestone . The sum of the distances of two nearest cities in each direction from the milestone is listed on the side .

I am posting recently clicked photo of Zero Milestone of Deoria city . It is freshly painted because it is just opposite the District magistrate’s Bungalow .

A Milestone at Deoria

A Milestone at Deoria

A Milestone at Deoria

A Milestone at Deoria

This huge stone structure , which gives the distance of various city from Deoria , is also freshly painted and it stands just in front of the District Magistrate’s Bungalow . These three are a part of my life . I have seen these three milestones or mileposts since my childhood days . I am a wanderer and am used to see milestones while travelling  .

A Milestone at Deoria [ Larger Version ]

A Milestone at Deoria [ Larger Version ]

 These photos , which I have taken from the internet , tell us that a milestone is the part of our civilization since the days of Roman Empire .

Slate milestone near Bangor, Wales

Slate milestone near Bangor, Wales (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Newell Green milestone

Newell Green milestone (Photo credit: sleepymyf)

Milestone, Bath Road

Milestone, Bath Road (Photo credit: Pete Reed)

Zero Milestone (1923), The Ellipse, Washington...

Zero Milestone (1923), The Ellipse, Washington, D.C. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Milestone

Milestone (Photo credit: A.M. Kuchling)

But alas , things are changing . Roads of yore are gone . Now Highways and Expressways have taken their place . And with the advent of these Highways and Expressways , milestones are also gone . Now metal mileposts with fluorescent colours have taken their place . On my numerous journeys , I have noticed these new age milestones but it never occurred to me that old milestones of my childhood will vanish one day .

These metal milestones are more convenient and easy to see during night because of the fluorescent colours , but the older version of the milestones have some distinct charm and some romantic attraction .

New Age Milestone

New Age Milestone

New Age Milestone

New Age Milestone

On my recent visit to Deoria when I travelled to my wife’s village Ghortap , I noticed the pitiable condition of the milestones . You can watch yourselves . You can’t read the name or distance because it is almost buried in the ground and also not painted . And remember , this road connects Deoria to Kushinagar , a Buddhist pilgrimage centre where Gautam Buddha attained NIRVANA . Several foreign dignitaries visit this place quite often .

Current State of Milestone

Current State of Milestone

Current State of Milestone

Current State of Milestone

Current State of Milestone

Current State of Milestone

Current State of Milestone

Current State of Milestone

Milestones of foreign countries are also going through the same phase .

Milestone, Bath Road

Milestone, Bath Road (Photo credit: Pete Reed)

Milestone, Datchett

Milestone, Datchett (Photo credit: Pete Reed)

Very soon these new age milestones or mileposts will replace our age-old milestones made of stone or rock . People of younger generation will forget about these ubiquitous milestones , which were so intrinsically attached to our being not very long ago .

New Age Milestone

New Age Milestone

Alas ! One more part of my life will cease to exist very soon . There is no official announcement . There is no official order of discontinuation of old milestones . But I know it wont be seen anymore . It wont be around few years after .

Milestone will be googled and it will only be seen in some dictionary or encyclopaedia .

[ Some information about Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire is taken from Wikipedia . I express gratitude . ]

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

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A Visitor From GUERNSEY


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JUNE 09 , 2012           01.00 A.M.

Almost a year back , I added a link of Flag Counter on my blog space . It helps me to know the names of the countries of the visitors of my blog . As soon as a visitor hits my blog , flag of his country appears on my flag counter .

On June 07 , 2012 , when I saw a new flag on the flag counter , I opened the link and got a shock of my life . The new visiting country’s name appeared as GUERNSEY. I rubbed my eyes , pinched my palm and then got assured that the name of the new visiting country is definitely GUERNSEY .

Flag Counter

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Free counters!

Till this date , as I am posting this blog , 116 countries have visited my blog space . GUERNSEY is the 115th country . Frankly speaking , I have not even heard the name of this country . I immediately clicked on the flag counter and got some knowledge about the country . Today I googled GUERNSEY and became more familiar with the country . A tiny island , GUERNSEY is situated 30 miles from the west coast of France and 75 miles south of England . GUERNSEY is a British Crown Dependency . She has a population of 65068 only . Her capital is Saint Peter Port and she has total area of  78 km..

Let us try to know something more about GUERNSEY .

[ Excerpts from Wikipedia ]

Guernsey (play /ˈɡɜrnzi/ GURN-zee), officially the Bailiwick of Guernsey (French: Bailliage de Guernesey, IPA: [bajaʒ də ɡɛʁnəzɛ]), is a British Crown dependency in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.

The Bailiwick of Guernsey embraces not only all 10 parishes on the Island of Guernsey, but also the islands of Herm, Jethou, and Lihou. Furthermore, the Bailiwick includes Alderney and Sark, which each has its own parliament.

Although its defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom, the Bailiwick of Guernsey is not part of the UK; and while it participates in the Common Travel Area, it is not part of the European Union.

The Bailiwick of Guernsey is included (along with the Bailiwick of Jersey) in the grouping known as the Channel Islands.

During World War I approximately 3,000 island men served in the British Expeditionary Force. Of these, about 1,000 served in the Royal Guernsey Light Infantry regiment which was formed from the Royal Guernsey Militia in 1916.

The Bailiwick of Guernsey was occupied by German troops in World War II. Before the occupation, many Guernsey children were evacuated to England to live with relatives or strangers during the war. Some children were never reunited with their families.

Several European countries have consulate presence in the island. The French Consulate is based at Victor Hugo‘s former residence at Hauteville House. The German Honorary Consulate is based at local design and advertising agency Betley Whitehorne.

While Guernsey has complete autonomy over internal affairs and certain external matters, the topic of complete independence from the British Crown has been discussed widely and frequently, with ideas ranging from Guernsey obtaining independence as a Dominion to the bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey uniting and forming an independent Federal State within the Commonwealth, whereby both islands retain their independence with regards to domestic affairs but internationally, the islands would be regarded as one state.

English is the language in general use by the majority of the population, while Guernésiais, the Norman language of the island, is spoken fluently by only about 2% of the population (according to 2001 census). However, 14% of the population claim some understanding of the language.  Georges Métivier, considered by some to be the island’s national poet, wrote in Guernesiais. The loss of the island’s language and the Anglicisation of its culture, which began in the nineteenth century and proceeded inexorably for a century, accelerated sharply when the majority of the island’s school children were evacuated to the UK for five years during the German occupation of 1940–1945.

Georges Métivier

[ Georges Métivier, considered by some to be the island’s national poet. ]

Victor Hugo wrote some of his best-known works while in exile in Guernsey, including Les Misérables. His home in St. Peter Port, Hauteville House, is now a museum administered by the city of Paris. In 1866, he published a novel set in the island, Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea), which he dedicated to the island of Guernsey.

Location of Guernsey

Location of Guernsey

Image of the Crown Dependencies

Image of Guernsey , British Crown Dependencies (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Map of Guernsey

Map of Guernsey

Map of the parishes of Guernsey.

Map of the parishes of Guernsey. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Flag of Guernsey (bordered)

Flag of Guernsey (bordered) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Civil ensign of Guernsey

Civil ensign of Guernsey (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Flag of Guernsey flying in St. Peter Port

Flag of Guernsey flying in St. Peter Port (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Airport of Guernsey

Airport of Guernsey

St. Peter Port

St. Peter Port

Guernsey 10

Guernsey (Photo credit: neonbubble)

Guernsey 04

Guernsey (Photo credit: neonbubble)

Guernsey

Guernsey

Guernsey Harbour

Guernsey Harbour

Ryman Auditorium, where The Byrds made their a...

Ryman Auditorium, where The Byrds made their appearance at the Grand Ole Opry on March 15, 1968. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Guernsey 11

Guernsey (Photo credit: neonbubble)

I never knew above mentioned facts , which I have taken from Wikipedia . I am a student of history and always take pride in the fact that my general knowledge is very good . Still I have not heard about GUERNSEY . I was even oblivious of her existence .

So , when an anonymous visitor from GUERNSEY visited my blog space , I was elated . I was simply ecstatic . I don’t think I will get an opportunity to visit this beautiful island nation . But who know ? May be some day I will land there . May be some day I will get a chance to pay obeisance to the house , where Victor Hugo stayed and wrote some of his famous novels .

WHO KNOWS ! !

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

Happy 250th Birthday To The Sandwitch


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           MAY 25 , 2012           02.25 A.M.

Last week I came across an innocuous news item in the Mumbai edition of Times Of India that our snack – cum – food a.k.a. Sandwich completed 250 years of its existence .I never knew that Sandwich was nowhere in the scene before 1762 .

I never knew that Sandwich is the name of a town , a small and non – decrepit port town , in the Dover district and Kent County of United Kingdom .

I never knew that John Montagu , 4th Earl of Sandwich [ 1718 – 1792 ] , a British statesman , was the inventor of this world-famous food item . And that , he invented this snack – cum – food item inadvertently . He , apart from being inventor of Sandwich , was Postmaster General , First Lord of Admiralty and Secretary of State for the Northern Department .

John Mantagu - 4th Earl of Sandwich

John Montagu – 4th Earl of Sandwich

4th Earl of Sandwich was considered a daring man because in those conservative times , he ate with his fingers . As story goes , in May 1762 , while playing the game of cards , he ordered his valet to serve him beef tucked between two slices of bread so that he could eat while playing cards . Later on his friends also asked ” to have the same as Sandwich “ . And thus slowly , Sandwich came into being .

In the beginning it was a non – veg food item . But slowly other forms of Sandwich also came into being . Veg Sandwich is another popular form .

Veg Sandwich

Veg Sandwich

Soon grilled Sandwich made its entry in the scene . Later on it was improvised further and grilled Cheese Sandwich came into being . Club Sandwich is the another variant , which is very popular .

Grilled Sandwich

Grilled Sandwich

Club Sandwich

Club Sandwich

As its popularity grew , it reached various other countries . Apart from Cuban and Turkish variants , Chicken Shwarma of Lebanon is the most popular , world – famous and known variant of the original Sandwich . Tuna Fish Sandwich is another hugely popular improvised version , which is savoured by rich and famous .

Cuban Sandwich

Cuban Sandwich

Tuna Fish Salad Sandwich

Tuna Fish Salad Sandwich

Turkey Sandwich

Turkey Sandwich

മലയാളം: Sharma sandwitch

Shwarma Sandwich of Lebanon

Popularity of Sandwich as a convenient food item never diminished . In the modern era , multi – national food giants also jumped in the fray . American fast – food giant McDonald’s was the first to capitalize on the popularity of Sandwich and came with the Hamburger and Burger variants , which took the world by storm . Started in May 15 , 1940 , this fast – food American giant has now more than 33,000 outlets world – wide .

Logo of McDonald's

Logo of McDonald’s

Hamburger

Hamburger

Burger

Burger

Subway is another multi – national food – chain , which made a late entry and soon spread its tentacles world – wide . Unlike McDonald’s , it is dedicated to Sandwiches only . Stablished in August 28 , 1965 , it has now more than 36,833 outlets in 100 countries .

Logo of Subway

Logo of Subway

Subway Sandwiches

Subway Sandwiches

Subway Sandwich

Subway Sandwich

Club Sandwich With Fries

Club Sandwich With Fries

In modern times , as popularity of Sandwiches grew further , there were several inventions like electric toasters to facilitate its making more easier , fast and convenient .

Sandwich Toaster

Sandwich Toaster

Later on ketchup and various kinds of Mayonnaise also came and people started using them as toppings and fillings with Sandwiches . Among ketchup , Heinz is the most famous and renowned ketchup company . It is followed by Maggi and our own Indian Kissan brands . Smith & Jones is another lesser known brand of ketchup available in India .

Mayonnaise

Mayonnaise

Heinz Tomato Kechup

Heinz Tomato Ketchup

Maggi Tomato Kechup

Maggi Tomato Ketchup

Kissan Tomato Ketchup

Kissan Tomato Ketchup

Smith & Jones Samosa Chutney

Smith & Jones Samosa Chutney

Indian palate is very familiar with mustard . We use it in pickles and other food items . So in India , a peculiar version of Sandwich emerged . Sweet Mustard ketchup and its Bengali cousin Kasundi emerged as extra fillings for Sandwiches with cucumber , tomato and onion  .

Mustard

Sweet Mustard Ketchup

Kasundi of Bengal

Kasundi of Bengal

Though use of various Jam , Jelly and marmalade with bread pieces can’t be called Sandwich in true sense of the term , but for sweet – loving Indians , it was a popular option and it has now become a ubiquitious food item of our homes for morning and evening snacks . Our own desi Kissan is present here also and Kissan Jam is one of the highest selling product  .

Kissan Jam

Kissan Jam

Hawaiian Sun Jelly

Hawaiian Sun Jelly

Savaille Orange Marmalade

Savaille Orange Marmalade

Hazelnut Spread , Peanut Spread , Cheese Spread and several other spreads are also available to sweeten our morning breakfast . You can’t call them Sandwiches but their popularity in India would have amazed Earl of Sandwich .

Hazelnut Filling

Hazelnut Filling

In these 250 years of its existence , Sandwich has taken many avatars . I would love to provide another version of Sandwich , which is popular in my house . I can call it Bhojpuri version or variant of Sandwich . Take two pieces of bread and roast it properly . Put lavish spread of butter on the pieces .Then take two extra ripe bananas and cut then in round pieces . Now  put pieces of extra ripe banana as fillings between two pieces of bread . Sprinkle salt and black pepper on it . Your Bhojpuri variant of Sandwich is ready for a bite . If you wish you can grill it also . So Bhojpuri Banana Sandwich and Bhojpuri Banana Grilled Sandwich are now available . Do try them .

I am sure , after hearing about this Bhojpuri Variant of Sandwich , John Montagu , the 4th Earl of Sandwich must be turning in his grave .

John Montagu4th Earl of Sandwich - Originator of Sandwich

John Montagu – 4th Earl of Sandwich – Originator of Sandwich

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

An Internet Bloomer : 2011


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           January 07 , 2012            01.50 A.M.

My last year’s article about my forays into internet was an impromptu effort . Since the activities are escalating by each passing year , I decided to give it a proper shape and post an account of my internet activities every year in the first week of January .

FACEBOOK : www.facebook.com / Vidur Chaturvedi

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Image representing Facebook as depicted in Cru...

Image via CrunchBase

As I have stated last year , Facebook was my first foray into internet  . In 2010 , I had 517 friends , which jumped to 1468 friends in 2011 . In one year 951 new friends joined me in my journey . In 2010 ,  I had created 16 albums and up – loaded 1163 photos .  In 2011 ,  it jumped to 24 albums and 2078 photos . In one year , a jump of , 6 more albums and 915 new photos .

I started posting THOUGHT of the DAY every night post 12.00 A.M. from August 2010 . Tonight when I posted my thought , I was surprised to notice that its number is 510 . Uninterrupted run of 510 days is quite a long journey indeed .

BLOG : www.mevidur.wordpress.com

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English: The logo of the blogging software Wor...

Image via Wikipedia

I started blogging in March 2009 . My first blog was posted on March 30 , 2009 . I created my account on WordPress on that day and started blogging .

Till the end of 2010 , I had posted 150 blogs . At the end of 2011 , its number is 227 . This blog will be 228th in the series . A leap of 78 blogs in one year .

Till the end of 2010 , I used to write in 28 categories . At the end of 2011 , I am using all the 32 categories . In 2010 I had 566 tags and in 2011 they have jumped to 1,963 . It is a big leap of 1,397 tags .

In 2010 , September 27 was the busiest day . I got 108 hits in a single day . It seems to be norm now in 2011 . 124 hits on April 14 ; 114 on September 07 ; 142 on September 20 ; 105 on December 28 , 124 on December 29 and 113 on January 06 , 2012 . April 18 , 2011 was the busiest day for my blog space . I got 219 hits . In 2011 , on 06 occasions , I got more than 90 hits per day . Total number of hits in 2010 were 8,107 . 2011 took a gigantic leap . Total number of hits are 25,549 . 17,442 hits in one year . It comes to 1453 hits per month and almost 50 hits per day . It is a far cry from 4 / 5 hits per day in the beginning of blogging .

In 2011 ,  I added flag counter to my blog space . To my amazement , I found that people of 84 countries have visited my blog space . In 2010 Flag Counter was not there . So comparative data is not available . But I am ecstatic .  Apart from India , name of other nations , whose nationals visited my blog space , are ; U.S.A. ; UNITED KINGDOM ; TAIWAN ; PAKISTAN ; NETHERLANDS ; CANADA ; U.A.E. ; SAUDI ARABIA ; BELGIUM ; BANGLADESH ; FRANCE ; AUSTRALIA ; GERMANY ; MALAYSIA ; QATAR ; ITALY ; NEPAL ; SINGAPORE ; BAHRAIN ; HONG KONG ; OMAN ; SERBIA ; SWEDEN ; SWITZERLAND ; SRI LANKA ; THAILAND ; POLAND ; INDONESIA ; SOUTH AFRICA ; MALDIVES ; PORTUGAL ; SOUTH KOREA ; BRAZIL ; JAPAN ; UKRAINE ; NEW ZEALAND ; GREECE ; RUSSIA ; TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO ; TUNISIA ; ROMANIA ; MONTENEGRO ; MAURITIUS ; ISRAEL ; FINLAND ; ECUADOR ; ALGERIA ; PHILIPPINES ; ICELAND ; HUNGARY ; MEXICO ; URUGUAY ; BULGARI ; AUSTRIA ; MOROCCO ; AZERBAIJAN ; MOLDOVA ; LEBANON ; KUWAIT ; MOZAMBIQUE ; TURKEY ; BELARUS ; BHUTAN ; ALBANIA ; GHANA ; KENYA ; VENEZUELA ; SLOVAKIA ; CZECH REPUBLIC ; COLOMBIA ; VIETNAM ; HONDURAS ; EGYPT ; NORWAY ; LUXEMBOUR ; GLATVIA ; BOLIVIA ; DENMARK ; CROATIA  and  IRELAND . Apart from above mentioned 84 countries , there were 19 other visits from unknown destinations . It makes the number of visiting country 103 . It is very encouraging for a non – entity like me .

List of my most – read blogs are also increasing . In 2010 , only 10 blogs had got more than 100 visits . In 2011 Home Page had got 7,016 hits . One blog post got more than 1,081 hits . Another one got 6,21 ; one got more than 430 ; 4 blog posts got more than 3,00 ; 2 got more than 2,00 and 19 posts got more than 100 hits .

I am in real ecstasy . I am numb . I am humbled .

TWITTER : www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

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Image representing Twitter as depicted in Crun...

Image via CrunchBase

I started twitter account on June 17 , 2009 . Till the end of 2010 , I had posted 2,740 tweets and had got 142 followers . Till the end of 2011 , I had posted 4,977 tweets and had got 392 followers . A jump of 2,237 tweets and 250 followers .

LINKED IN : http://www.linkedin.com/in/mevidur

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Till the end of 2010 , I had just 11 Linked In connections . It jumped to 48 connections in 2011 .

Apart from above mentioned activities , I have Wikipedia Profile , YouTube Channel , Google Account and few others . All these accounts , for convenience , are assembled in Gravator Profile .

It is now 32 month – old passion . I would like to call it A Dream of Passion on Internet .

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

100 Years of Our National Anthem : Jana Gana Mana ….


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           DECEMBER 29 , 2011           02.25 A.M.

Portrait of Bharat Mata

On December 27 , 2011 , our National Anthem completed 100 years . Written by Rabindra Nath Tagore in Bengali , it was first sung on December 27 . 1911 in the Calcutta [ Now Kolkata ] session of Indian National Congress . The building , where plenary session of Congress was held is called Bharat Sabha . It is on Bowbazar Street . That building still stands and is the silent reminder of that historical event .

Bharat Sabha on Bowbazar Street , Where Jana Gana Mana Was First Sung

Rabindranath Tagore won the Nobel prize for li...

Rabindra Nath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore wrote 5 stanzas of the song , which is basically a Brahmo Hymn . Only the first stanza was adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem on January 24 , 1950 . Here I am giving all the 5 stanzas along with the English translation done by Rabindranath Tagore himself .

Rabindranath Tagore at His Writing Desk

[ 1 ] = Jano Gano Mano Adhinaayako Jayo Hey,Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Panjaabo Sindhu Gujaraato Maraathaa,Draabiro Utkalo Bango
Bindhyo Himaachalo Jamunaa Gangaa, Uchchhalo Jalodhi Tarango
Tabo Shubho Naamey Jaagey, Tabo Shubho Aashisho Maagey
Gaahey Tabo Jayogaathaa
Jano Gano Mangalo Daayako, Jayo Hey Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey,Jayo Jayo Jayo, Jayo Hey

[ Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,Dispenser of India‘s destiny,
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat & Maratha,of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal,
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges,
And is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea. They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise,
The saving of all people waits in thy hands,
Thou dispenser of India’s destiny,
Victory, Victory, Victory to thee. ]

[ 2 ] = Ohoroho Tobo Aahbaano Prachaarito,Shuni Tabo Udaaro Baani

Hindu Bauddho Shikho Jaino,Parashiko Musholmaano Christaani

Purabo Pashchimo Aashey,Tabo Singhaasano Paashey
Premohaaro Hawye Gaanthaa
Jano Gano Oikyo Bidhaayako Jayo Hey,Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey,Jayo Jayo Jayo, Jayo Hey

[ Day and night, thy voice goes out from land to land,
calling the Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains round thy throne and the Parsees, Mussalmans and Christians.
Offerings are brought to thy shrine by the East and the West
To be woven in a garland of love.
Thou bringeth the hearts of all people into the harmony of one life,Thou Dispenser of India’s destiny,
Victory, Victory, Victory to thee.” ]

[ 3 ] = Potono Abhbhudoy Bandhuro Ponthaa,Jugo Jugo Dhaabito Jaatri
Hey Chiro Saarothi, Tabo Ratha Chakrey Mukhorito Potho Dino Raatri
Daaruno Biplabo Maajhey,Tabo Shankhodhwoni Bajey
Sankato Dukkho Traataa
Jano Gano Potho Parichaayako,Jayo Hey Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey,Jayo Jayo Jayo, Jayo Hey

[ The procession of pilgrims passes over the endless road, rugged with the rise and fall of nations;
and it resounds with the thunder of thy wheel.Eternal Charioteer!
Through the dire days of doom thy trumpet sounds, and men are led by thee across death.
Thy finger points the path to all people.
Oh dispenser of India’s destiny!
Victory, victory, victory to thee. ]

[ 4 ] = Ghoro Timiro Ghono Nibiro,Nishithey Peerito Murchhito Deshey

Jagrato Chhilo Tabo Abicholo Mangalo,Noto Nayoney Animeshey
Duhswapney Aatankey,Rokkhaa Koriley Ankey
Snehamoyi Tumi Maataaa
Jano Gano Duhkho Trayako,Jayo Hey Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey,Jayo Jayo Jayo, Jayo Hey

[ The darkness was dense and deep was the night; my country lay in a deathlike silence of swoon.
 But thy mother arms were round her and thine eyes gazed upon her troubled face
in sleepless love through her hours of ghastly dreams.
Thou art the companion and the saviour of the people in their sorrows,
thou dispenser of India’s destiny!
Victory, victory, victory to thee. ]

[ 5 ] = Raatri Prabhatilo Udilo Rabichhabi, Purbo Udayo Giri Bhaaley
Gaahey Bihangamo Punyo Samirano, Nabo Jibano Rasho Dhaley
Tabo Karunaaruno Ragey,Nidrito Bhaarato Jagey
Tabo Chorone Noto Maatha
Jayo Jayo Jayo Hey, Jayo Rajeshwaro, Bhaarato Bhaagyo Bidhaataa
Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey, Jayo Hey,Jayo Jayo Jayo, Jayo Hey

[ The night fades;the light breaks over the peaks of the Eastern hills,
the birds begin to sing and the morning breeze carries the breath of new life.
The rays of the mercy have touched the waking land with their blessings.
Victory to the King of Kings,
victory to thee, dispenser of India’s destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee. ]

Rabindranath Tagore at His Writing Desk

Music Notes of Jana Gana Mana

I am giving all the 5 stanzas of Jana Gana Mana ….. in Bengali script .

জনগণমন-অধিনায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
পঞ্জাব সিন্ধু গুজরাট মরাঠা দ্রাবিড় উৎকল বঙ্গ
বিন্ধ্য হিমাচল যমুনা গঙ্গা উচ্ছলজলধিতরঙ্গ
তব শুভ নামে জাগে,        তব শুভ আশিষ মাগে,
গাহে তব জয়গাথা।
জনগণমঙ্গলদায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

অহরহ তব আহ্বান প্রচারিত, শুনি তব উদার বাণী
হিন্দু বৌদ্ধ শিখ জৈন পারসিক মুসলমান খৃস্টানী
পূরব পশ্চিম আসে       তব সিংহাসন-পাশে
প্রেমহার হয় গাঁথা।
জনগণ-ঐক্য-বিধায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

পতন-অভ্যুদয়-বন্ধুর পন্থা, যুগ যুগ ধাবিত যাত্রী।
হে চিরসারথি, তব রথচক্রে মুখরিত পথ দিনরাত্রি।
দারুণ বিপ্লব-মাঝে       তব শঙ্খধ্বনি বাজে
সঙ্কটদুঃখত্রাতা।
জনগণপথপরিচায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

ঘোরতিমিরঘন নিবিড় নিশীথে পীড়িত মূর্ছিত দেশে
জাগ্রত ছিল তব অবিচল মঙ্গল নতনয়নে অনিমেষে।
দুঃস্বপ্নে আতঙ্কে       রক্ষা করিলে অঙ্কে
স্নেহময়ী তুমি মাতা।
জনগণদুঃখত্রায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

রাত্রি প্রভাতিল, উদিল রবিচ্ছবি পূর্ব-উদয়গিরিভালে –
গাহে বিহঙ্গম, পূণ্য সমীরণ নবজীবনরস ঢালে।
তব করুণারুণরাগে       নিদ্রিত ভারত জাগে
তব চরণে নত মাথা।
জয় জয় জয় হে জয় রাজেশ্বর ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে।।

English: English translation of Jana Gana Mana...

English Translation of Jana Gana Mana in Tagore's Hand-Writing - Part 1

English: English translation of Jana Gana Mana...

English Translation of Jana Gana Mana in Tagore's Hand-Writing - Part 2

It is unfortunate that our National Anthem is mired in controversies . The poem was composed in December 1911, precisely at the time of the Coronation Durbar of George V, and “Bharat Bhagya vidhata” and “Adhinayaka” is considered by some to be in praise of King George V and not God. The composition was first sung during a convention of the then loyalist Indian National Congress in Calcutta on Dec. 26, 1911.It was sung on the second day of the convention, and the agenda of that day devoted itself to a loyal welcome of George V on his visit to India. The event was reported thus in the British Indian press :

“The Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore sang a song composed by him specially to welcome the Emperor.” (Statesman, Dec. 28, 1911)

“The proceedings began with the singing by Rabindranath Tagore of a song specially composed by him in honour of the Emperor.” (Englishman, Dec. 28, 1911)

“When the proceedings of the Indian National Congress began on Wednesday 27th December 1911, a Bengali song in welcome of the Emperor was sung. A resolution welcoming the Emperor and Empress was also adopted unanimously.” (Indian, Dec. 29, 1911)

Many historians aver that the newspaper reports cited above were misguided. The confusion arose in British Indian press since a different song, “Badshah Humara” written in Hindi by Rambhuj Chaudhary , was sung on the same occasion in praise of the monarch. The nationalist Indian press stated this difference of events clearly:-

“The proceedings of the Congress party session started with a prayer in Bengali to praise God (song of benediction). This was followed by a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V. Then another song was sung welcoming King George V.” (Amrita Bazar Patrika, Dec.28,1911)

“The annual session of Congress began by singing a song composed by the great Bengali poet Ravindranath Tagore. Then a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V was passed. A song paying a heartfelt homage to King George V was then sung by a group of boys and girls.” (The Bengalee, Dec. 28, 1911)

Even the report of the annual session of the Indian National Congress of December 1911 stated this difference:

“On the first day of 28th annual session of the Congress, proceedings started after singing Vande Mataram. On the second day the work began after singing a patriotic song by Babu Ravindranath Tagore. Messages from well wishers were then read and a resolution was passed expressing loyalty to King George V. Afterwards the song composed for welcoming King George V and Queen Mary was sung.”

On 10 November 1937 Tagore wrote a letter to Mr Pulin Bihari Sen about the controversy. That letter in Bengali can be found in Tagore’s biography Ravindrajivani, volume II page 339 by Prabhatkumar Mukherjee.

“A certain high official in His Majesty’s service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Vidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India’s chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense.”

Again in his letter of 19 March 1939 Tagore writes,

“I should only insult myself if I cared to answer those who consider me capable of such unbounded stupidity as to sing in praise of George the Fourth or George the Fifth as the Eternal Charioteer leading the pilgrims on their journey through countless ages of the timeless history of mankind.” (Purvasa, Phalgun, 1354, p738.)

Moreover, Tagore was a patriot who wrote other songs too apart from “Jana gana Mana” lionizing the Indian independence movement. He renounced his knighthood in protest against the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. The  Knighthood i.e. the title of ‘Sir’ was conferred on him by the same King George V after receiving the Nobel Prize in Literature for “Gitanjali” from the government of Sweden. Two of Tagore’s more politically charged compositions, “Chitto Jetha Bhayshunyo” (“Where the Mind is Without Fear” :Gitanjali Poem#35) and “Ekla Chalo Re” (“If They Answer Not to Thy Call, Walk Alone”), gained mass appeal, with the latter favoured by Gandhiji and Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose .

In 1919, Tagore travelled to Madanapalle in Andhra Pradesh and spent five days at the Theosophical College with Irish poet James H. Cousins, who was the principal.

On the evening of February 28, 1919, the poet, for the first time, sang the inspiring devotional song and enthralled the college authorities, who selected it as the prayer song.

Tagore subsequently translated the lyrics into English and with the help of Cousins’ wife, Margaret, who was an expert in western music, set down the notation which is being followed till today.

This opened the window for the song to reach national and international audiences.

I personally believe that Gurudev , as he was fondly called  , was a patriot and he created Jana Gana Mana ….. in the honour of Bharat Mata . It was a Brahmo Hymn and not a song in the honour of King George the 5th .

If still people want to raise an accusing finger , it should be pointed at the Congress . The Indian National Congress even passed a resolution praising King George the 5th. A confusion was created by ignorant people and Tagore was blamed for subservient behaviour and the Congress conveniently forgot its resolution praising and hailing the King George 5th of Great Britain . Indian National Congress still keeps enigmatic silence and feigns ignorance , when Tagore is accused for praising the King George V .

It is shameful !

[ Certain portions of this blog is re – produced from Wikipedia and various other sources on internet . I am indebted . I express mu gratitude . ]

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

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