100th Year of Formation of Bihar


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           AUGUST 08, 2012         01. 15 A.M.

This year in 2012 Bihar is celebrating 100 years of its existence as a province of India . Before 1912 Bihar was included in the erstwhile Bengal Presidency of British Indian Empire .

But Bihar’s history is much older that the British Indian Empire and even the rule of Afghans and Mughals .

Ancient Bihar (which consisted of Anga, Videha/Mithila, Magadha and Vajji/Vrijji) was a centre of power , learning and culture in ancient and classical India . From Magadha arose India’s first and greatest empire , the Maurya empire as well as one of the world’s most widely adhered-to religions , Buddhism . Magadha empires , notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties , unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule . Its capital Patna , earlier known as Pataliputra, was an important centre of Indian civilization . Nalanda and Vikramshila were centres of learning established in the 5th and 8th century respectively in Bihar , and are counted amongst the oldest and truly international universities , where people from all over the world came to study. Bihar has distinction of giving the world its first democracy through Lichchivi Ganarajya [ modern-day Vaishali district ] during ancient era . Though today , for some , Vaishali is more associated with Aamrapali , than with democracy . But for lovers of history , Vaishali will always be known as the epicentre of the FIRST PARLIAMENT OF THE WORLD .

I am posting few maps , which amply make clear the importance of Bihar and its significant contribution to the cultural ethos of India . From the mythological Magadh of Jarasandh and Anga of Karna of Mahabharata era , to the Maurya period and Chankya era and to the Golden Age of Guptas , Bihar has seen it all .

The approximate extent of the Magadha Empire i...

The approximate extent of the Magadha Empire in the 5th century BC. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The ‘16 Great Nations’; Anga is the easternmos...

The ‘16 Great Nations’; Anga is the easternmost, south of Vrijji and east of Magadha (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under ...

The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chandragupta's empire when he founded it c. 32...

Chandragupta’s empire when he founded it c. 320 BCE, by the time he was about 20 years old. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chandragupta Maurya's empire in 305 BC after h...

Chandragupta Maurya’s empire in 305 BC after his conflict with Seleucus Nicator. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Maurya Empire after Bindusara's death 269.

The Maurya Empire after Bindusara’s death 269. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Ashoka the Great subdued Kalinga, during the K...

Ashoka the Great subdued Kalinga, during the Kalinga War circa 265 BC, and the southern kingdoms. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: A map of the Maurya Dynasty, showing ...

English: A map of the Maurya Dynasty, showing major cities, early Buddhist sites, Ashokan Edicts, etc. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Appr...

Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Gupta Empire. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Patliputra as a capital of Sunga Empire. Appro...

Patliputra as a capital of Sunga Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga Empire (circa 185 BCE). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

After the end of this glorious and ancient chapter and after the end of not so significant Afghan and Mughal era , East India Company conquered large parts of northern India and became the de – facto rulers . After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Orissa , [ now Odisha ] . The rich resources of fertile land , water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists , particularly the Dutch and British , in the 18th century . Bihar remained a part the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912 , when the province of Bihar and Orissa [ now Odisha ] was carved out as a separate province . Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March . In 1935 , certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate province of Orissa [ now Odisha ] .

Map of United Bihar

Map of United Bihar

In 2000 , Bihar was divided into two and North part of undivided Bihar became Bihar and the Southern part was carved as a separate province and is now known as Jharkhand .

Bihar of Present Day

Bihar of Present Day

After partition , present day Bihar is the 12th largest state of India in terms of geographical size and 3rd largest in population . Apart from Hindi , Bihar is the home of some of the dialects of Hindi , like ; Bhojpuri , Magadhi , Maithili , Angika and Vajjika . For administrative purposes Bihar is divided into 9 divisions and 38 districts .

Location of Bihar in India

Location of Bihar in India

After independence and under the rule of Chief Ministers like ; Krishna Sinha and Anugrah Narayan Sinha , Bihar for some time , basked in the old glory of Patliputra . But it suffered a lot during the rule of Congress in later years . During the 15 year rule of Lalu Prasad Yadav and his wife Rabdi Devi , Bihar reached at its nadir . Lawlessness and anarchy ruled supreme . Day time murders became order of the day . Ransom became a respectable business . Reputation of Chankya’s Bihar and Chandragupta Maurya’s Patliputra was massacred and mutilated by RJD’s Lalu Prasad Yadav . It was further defaced and defiled by his inefficient wife Rabdi Devi .

After all the turmoil and tribulations , Bihar finally rejected RJD of Lalu and elected BJP , JD [ U ] combine in 2005 . Bihar is now marching ahead under the NDA rule . After Gujarat , now it is the second fastest growing state of India .

I am happy that in the centenary year of its existence , Bihar is shedding its infamous and nefarious image and gaining international respectability and appreciation . Bharatiya Janata Party and Janata Dal [ United ] combine deserve kudos for that . Though it is still miles behind of other states but definitely it is moving ahead and moving fast . May this centenary year be the golden year of Bihar .

I am happy because I have my roots in Bihar . My forefathers originally hailed from the state and only later on they migrated to Uttar Pradesh .

[ Some facts and figures of Bihar have been taken from Wikipedia . I express my gratitude . ]

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

150 Years of First Christian Saint of India


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA           JUNE 11. 2012           02.00 A.M.

Read a very small news item in the June 09 , 2012 issue of Times of India . It was about St. Gonsalo Garcia , a Christian missionary of Indian origin , who is also the first saint of Indian origin . He was crucified in Japan for propagating Christianity .

It was very shocking to say the least . While reading about St. Gomsalo Garcia , I remember a very tragic and sad case of a Christian missionary Graham Staines , who was murdered , while working in Odisha province of India .

Map of India showing location of Orissa

Map of India showing location of Odisha (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Locator map of the state of Odisha, India with...

Locator map of the state of Odisha, India with district boundaries. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In 1999 , an Australian Christian missionary Graham Staines was burnt alive along with his two sons Timothy [ aged 9 ] and Philip [ aged 7 ] , while they were sleeping in his station wagon at Manoharpur village in Keonjhar district in Odisha . This was an unfortunate incident and a blot on the SARVA DHARMA SAMABHAV [ All Religions Are Equal ] credentials of India . No sane person can justify communal violence of any kind . Every one condemned the incident and appealed for peace and immediate halt of attacks against Christians . But seculars and left – liberal intellectuals pounced on right – wingers and nationalists for the gruesome murder . They still throw venom on nationalist forces for gruesome Graham Staines murder . Though they conveniently forget about Swami Lakshmanananda’s murder .

English: Graham Staines and family

Graham Staines and family (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In their eagerness and zeal to condemn the nationalist forces , these seculars and left – liberals forget that Dara Singh was convicted in 2009 for leading the rampaging mob against Christians . In 2011 the Supreme Court of India upheld life imprisonment for Dara Singh . Justice prevailed , rule of law upheld and in a predominantly Hindu nation , Gaham Staines , an Australian Christian missionary got justice .

English: Cross

Cross (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

While reading the article of Times of India , I was pained that St.Gonsalo Garcia was crucified in Japan in 1597 . Seculars and left – liberals are not that vociferous in condemnation in this case as they are in the case of India . Why Japan is not condemned the way India is always condemned for the communal violence ?

Gonsalo Garcia was born in Gass village of Vasai , Mumbai in 1557 . At that time Vasai was under Portuguese rule and was known as Bassein . Since childhood , Gonsalo had a strong desire to become a Jesuit priest . At the age of 15 , he came in contact with another Jesuit priest Sebastio Gonsalves and went to Japan and worked in his mission . For a brief period he moved to Philippines but later on returned to Japan , joined Franciscan order and started preaching Christianity .

Local Buddhist monks got envious and they forced the Japanese authorities to arrest all Christian missionaries including Gonsalo Garcia . They were sentenced to death and crucified on a hill in Nagasaki on February 05 , 1597 .

In Christian world they are known as ” Nagasaki Martyrs ” . On June 08 , 1862 Pope Pius IX declared them saints . Christians of Mumbai are celebrating 150 years of canonization of St . Gonsalo Garcia this year .

English: Pope Pius IX standing in front of his...

Pope Pius IX standing in front of his papal tiara. fairuse (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

When anti Christian riots happened in some parts of India , specially in Odisha , seculars and left – liberal intellectuals lambasted nationalists and right – wingers .Why are they silent in this case . Though the incident happened in 1597 but it did  happen . And it is against all the accepted norms of secular society .

I , at least , deeply condemn the brutal murder of St. Gonsalo Garcia and hail the judicial system of my country . Graham Staines and his two sons got justice and Dara Singh is languishing in prison for his crime .

English: The supreme court of india. Taken abo...

supreme court of india. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

India : Politics In The Name of Names


MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA             AUGUST 24 , 2011             11  . 15  A. M.

Last week there was news that all the parties of West Bengal unanimously decided to change the name of the state to Paschim Banga .Very soon West Bengal will be known as Paschim Banga. Mamta Banerjee promised to go for a new nomenclature , when she came to power . It goes to her credit that she fulfilled her promise very soon and all the parties of the state agreed and supported the new name . Very soon Paschim Banga will be a reality. But it is not the first time that a state is being renamed. 5 provinces , 2 Union territories  and 70 cities have already been renamed and a proposal to change Orissa’s name is pending before the Parliament.

Political Map of India

Political Map of India

Let us go through the list of Provinces :

1 – Travancore – Cochin is now known as Kerala . [ Name Changed in 1956 ]

2 – Madhya Bharat is now known as Madhya Pradesh . [ Name Changed in 1959]

3 – Madras is now known as Tamil Nadu . [ Name Changed in 1969 ]

4 – Mysore is now known as Karnataka . [ Name Changed in 1973 ]

5 – Uttaranchal is now known as Uttarakhand . [ Name Changed in 2007 ]

There are  proposals for the name change of the 4 Provinces  :

1 – Orissa  – New Name  Odisha . [ Proposed in 2011 ]

2 – West Bengal – New Name  Paschim Banga . [ Proposed in 2011 ]

3 – Kerala , which got its name changed from Travancore – Cochin , wants now to be known as Keralam . [ Still a Wish ]

4 – Assam – New Name  Asom . [ Still a Wish ]


List of Union Territories, which were renamed  :

1 – Laccadivi, Minikoy & Amindivi Islands   –  New Name Lakshadweep . [ Name Changed in 1973 ]

2 – Pondicherry – New Name Puducherry . [  Name Changed in 2006 ]

Map of India showing location of West Bengal

Map of India showing location of West Bengal

So 5 states and 2 Union Territories of India have been renamed . Two states have concrete proposals for the name change and proposals for Kerala  and Assam, are still in nascent stages.

Apart from above mentioned 9 provinces , and 2 Union Territories  there are 70  Indian cities , which have gone through the name change.

Major cities that have been renamed after independence include:

Andhra Pradesh

Assam

  • Nowgong to Nagaon
  • Gauhati to Guwahati (change effective 1983)
  • Sibsagar to Sivasagar

Gujarat

Himachal Pradesh

Kerala

Madhya Pradesh

Maharashtra

Puducherry

  • Pondicherry to Puducherry (change effective from 1 October 2006)
  • Yanaon to Yanam (change effective from merger with Indian Union)

Punjab

Tamil Nadu

Uttar Pradesh

  • Cawnpore to Kanpur (change effective 1948)
  • Benares to Varanasi (change effective 1956)

West Bengal

  • Calcutta to Kolkata (change effective from 1 January 2001)
  • Burdwan to Bardhaman

Name change proposal for 9 other Indian cities are there but they allude consensus . They are :

1 – Ahmedabad  – Proposed Name  – Karnavati

2 – Allahabad – Prposed Name  – Prayag or Teerth Raj Prayag

3 – Aurangabad  – Proposed Name  – Sambhajinagar

4 – Patna  – Proposed Name –  Pataliputra

5 – Mysore  – Proposed Name –  Mysooru

6 – Mangalore  – Proposed Name –  Mangaluru

7 – Bangalore – Proposed Name – Bengaluru

8 – Bhopal  – Proposed Name –  Bhojpal

9 – Hyderabad  – Proposed Name –  Bhagya Nagaram

Above mentioned 9 cities have long pending demands for name change , but since it requires Union Cabinet and Parliament’s approval , and at present they are controlled by the Congress , so chances are bleak for the renaming because there is no consensus for the new names of the above mentioned cities.

I fail to understand the logic. If names of 5 states , 2 Union Territories and 70 cities could be changed and 2 more states are on the verge of being renamed , then why to deny above mentioned 9 cities the same right ? Is it because  proposal for the name change for these 9 cities came from BJP or Shiv Sena or other opposition parties ? Or because proposed names of these 9 cities bear the ethos of our age – old tradition and ageless culture ? Or because they are being opposed by some so – called secular parties and intellectuals of left leaning ? Or fear of vote bank politics is stalling the renaming ?

If it is so , it is sad , very , very sad !!

VIDUR

MUMBAI – MAHARASHTRA – INDIA

www.vidur.co.in

www.vidurfilms.com

www.twitter.com/VidurChaturvedi

www.jaibhojpuri.com/profile/VidurChaturvedi

[ I have taken some materials , data and dates for this blog from Wikipedia . I express my gratitude . ]

ErikaBeyk

This WordPress.com site is about Health and Wellbeing

Arun Shanbhag

Life is Beautiful, Live it the fullest

WordPress.com

WordPress.com is the best place for your personal blog or business site.

The WordPress.com Blog

The latest news on WordPress.com and the WordPress community.

%d bloggers like this: